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Abatacept (marketed as Orencia) is a fusion protein composed of an immunoglobulin fused to the extracellular domain of CTLA-4, a molecule capable of binding B7. Abatacept is a selective costimulation modulator as it inhibits the costimulation of T cells. It was developed by Bristol-Myers-Squibb and is licensed in the United States for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the case of inadequate response to anti-TNFα therapy.
Mechanism of action
Ordinarily, full T cell activation requires 1) binding of the T cell receptor to the antigen-MHC complex on the antigen presenting cell (APC) and 2) a costimulatory signal provided by the binding of the T cell's CD28 protein to the B7 protein on the APC. Abatacept, which contains a high-affinity binding site for B7, works by binding to the B7 protein on APCs and preventing them from delivering the costimulatory signal to T cells, thus preventing the full activation of T cells.
Abatacept is the basis for the second-generation belatacept currently being tested in clinical trials. In organ transplantation, it is intended to provide extended graft survival while limiting the toxicity generated by standard immune-suppressing regimens such as calcineurin inhibitors (eg, ciclosporin).
Abatacept is currently approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis patients who have had an inadequate response to one or more DMARDs. It is useful in delaying the progression of structural damage and reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. However, it should not be used in combination with anakinra or TNF antagonists. It is also likely to be beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and in organ transplantation.
Abatacept is currently in trial for the treatment of patients suffering moderate to severe active ulcerative colitis, where response to standard treatment has failed to bring about remission.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Abatacept". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|