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Cromoglicate (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN) or cromoglycate (former BAN)) is traditionally described as a mast cell stabilizer, and is commonly marketed as the sodium salt sodium cromoglicate or cromolyn sodium. This drug prevents the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells.
It is available as a nasal spray (Rynacrom®(UK), Nasalcrom®) to treat allergic rhinitis, as an inhaler (Intal®) for preventive management of asthma, as eye drops (Opticrom® and Optrex Allergy® (UK), Crolom®) for allergic conjunctivitis, or in an oral form (Gastrocrom®) to treat mastocytosis, dermatographic urticaria and ulcerative colitis.
Sodium cromoglicate has also been shown to reduce symptoms of food allergies, including some cases of chronic migraines.
Mechanism of action
The underlying mechanism of action is not fully understood; for while cromoglicate stabilizes mast cells, this mechanism is probably not why it works in asthma. Pharmaceutical companies have produced 20 related compounds that are equally or more potent at stabilising mast cells and none of them have shown any anti-asthmatic effect. It is more likely that these work by inhibiting the response of sensory C fibres to the irritant capsacin, inhibiting local axon reflexes involved in asthma, and may inhibit the release of preformed T cell cytokines and mediators involved in asthma. (see review by Garland, 1991)
Allegic reactions may include severe rash internally and externally.
Note: Another chemical (NPPB (5-nitro-2(3-phenyl) propylamino-benzoic acid)) was shown, in the same study, to be a more effective chloride channel blocker.
Finally it may act by inhibiting calcium influx.
Cromoglicate is classified as a chromone.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Cromoglicate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|