Dabigatran is an anticoagulant from the class of the direct thrombin inhibitors. It is being studied for various clinical indications, for some of which it may replace warfarin as the preferred anticoagulant. It is orally administered as the prodrug dabigatran etexilate (planned trade names Rendix and Pradaxa). It was developed by pharmaceutical company Boehringer-Ingelheim.
Dabigatran (then compound BIBR 953) was discovered from a panel of chemicals with similar structure to benzamidine-based thrombin inhibitor α-NAPAP (N-alpha-(2-naphthylsulfonylglycyl)-4-amidinophenylalanine piperidide), which had been known since the 1980s as a powerful inhibitor of various serine proteases, specifically thrombin but also trypsin. Addition of a hydrophobic side chain led to the orally absorbed prodrug BIBR 1048 (dabigatran etexilate).
Phase 3 clinical trials are ongoing in treatment and prevention of secondary venous thromboembolism (VTE) in post-operative orthopedic patients (expected results by Oct 2007); long-term prophylaxis in acute coronary syndrome and stroke patients and symptomatic VTE because of various causes (expected results by 2009-2010).
A 2004 study showed a good safety profile at doses between 12.5 and 300 mg twice daily.
In a phase II study comparing dabigatran with enoxaparin showed increased efficacy in preventing thrombosis in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, but a possible increased bleeding risk in patients receiving higher doses of dabigatran.
Absorption is unrelated to food but may be decreased with co-administration of proton pump inhibitors.
- ^ Hauel NH, Nar H, Priepke H, Ries U, Stassen JM, Wienen W. Structure-based design of novel potent nonpeptide thrombin inhibitors. J Med Chem 2002;45:1757-66. PMID 11960487.
- ^ Currently active clinical trials of Dabigatran at ClinicalTrials.gov http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/search?term=Dabigatran&submit=Search
- ^ Eriksson BI, Dahl OE, Ahnfelt L, Kalebo P, Stangier J, Nehmiz G, Hermansson K, Kohlbrenner V. Dose escalating safety study of a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, in patients undergoing total hip replacement: BISTRO I. J Thromb Haemost 2004;2:1573-80. PMID 15333033.
- ^ Eriksson BI, Dahl OE, Buller HR, Hettiarachchi R, Rosencher N, Bravo ML, Ahnfelt L, Piovella F, Stangier J, Kalebo P, Reilly P; BISTRO II Study Group. A new oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, compared with enoxaparin for prevention of thromboembolic events following total hip or knee replacement: the BISTRO II randomized trial. J Thromb Haemost 2005;3:103-11. PMID 15634273.
- ^ Stangier J, Eriksson BI, Dahl OE, Ahnfelt L, Nehmiz G, Stahle H, Rathgen K, Svard R. Pharmacokinetic profile of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate in healthy volunteers and patients undergoing total hip replacement. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45:555-63. PMID 15831779.
|Antithrombotics (thrombolytics, anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs) (B01)|
|Vitamin K antagonists||Acenocoumarol • Clorindione • Coumatetralyl • Dicumarol (Dicoumarol) • Diphenadione • Ethyl biscoumacetate • Phenprocoumon • Phenindione • Tioclomarol • Warfarin|
|Heparin group||Antithrombin III • Danaparoid • Heparin • Sulodexide • low molecular weight heparin (Bemiparin, Dalteparin, Enoxaparin, Nadroparin, Parnaparin, Reviparin, Tinzaparin)|
|Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors||Abciximab • Eptifibatide • Tirofiban|
|Acetylsalicylic acid/Aspirin • Aloxiprin • Ditazole • Carbasalate calcium • Cloricromen • Dipyridamole • Indobufen • Picotamide • Triflusal • ADP receptor inhibitors (Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine, Prasugrel) • prostaglandin analogue (Beraprost, Prostacyclin, Iloprost, Treprostinil)|
|Enzymes||plasminogen activators (Alteplase/Reteplase/Tenecteplase, Streptokinase, Urokinase/Saruplase, Anistreplase) • other serine endopeptidases (Ancrod, Drotrecogin alfa/Protein C, Fibrinolysin) • Brinase|
|Direct thrombin inhibitors||Argatroban • Bivalirudin • Dabigatran • Desirudin • Hirudin • Lepirudin • Melagatran • Ximelagatran|
|Other antithrombotics||Defibrotide • Dermatan sulfate • Fondaparinux • Rivaroxaban|
|Non-medicinal||Citrate • EDTA • Oxalate|