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Glutamate receptor



  Glutamate receptors are transmembrane receptors located on neuron membranes, they bind the neurotransmitter glutamate.

Additional recommended knowledge

Function

Glutamate is the most prominent neurotransmitter in the body,[1] being present in over 50% of nervous tissue. The primary glutamate receptor is specifically sensitive to N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), which causes direct action of the central pore of the receptor, an ion channel, to drive the neuron to depolarize. Depolarization will trigger the firing, or action potential of the neuron, therefore NMDA is excitatory.[1]

Types of glutamate receptors

There are two basic types of neural receptor: ionotropic, and metabotropic. [2]

There are many specific subtypes of glutamate receptors, and it is customary to refer to primary subtypes by a chemical which binds to it more selectively than glutamate. The research, though, is ongoing as subtypes are identified and chemical affinities measured. There are several compounds which are routinely used in glutamate receptor research and associated with receptor subtypes:

Type Name Agonist(s)
ionotropic NMDA receptor NMDA
ionotropic Kainate receptor Kainate
ionotropic AMPA receptor AMPA
metabotropic mGluR L-AP4, ACPD, L-QA[3]

References

  1. ^ a b "Glutamate Receptors - Structures and Functions" at bris.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  2. ^ Palmada M, Centelles J. "Excitatory amino acid neurotransmission. Pathways for metabolism, storage and reuptake of glutamate in brain". Front Biosci 3: d701-18. PMID 9665875.
  3. ^ Ohashi H, Maruyama T, Higashi-Matsumoto H, Nomoto T, Nishimura S, Takeuchi Y (2002). "A novel binding assay for metabotropic glutamate receptors using [3H L-quisqualic acid and recombinant receptors]". Z Naturforsch [C] 57 (3-4): 348-55. PMID 12064739.


 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Glutamate_receptor". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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