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Isotopes of aluminium



Aluminium (Al) has multiple isotopes. Only 27Al (stable isotope) and 26Al (radioactive isotope, t1/2 = 7.2 × 105 y) occur naturally, however 27Al has a natural abundance of 99.9+ %. Standard atomic mass is 26.9815386(8) u. 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic-ray protons. Aluminium isotopes have found practical application in dating marine sediments, manganese nodules, glacial ice, quartz in rock exposures, and meteorites. The ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used to study the role of transport, deposition, sediment storage, burial times, and erosion on 105 to 106 year time scales.[citation needed]

Cosmogenic 26Al was first applied in studies of the Moon and meteorites. Meteorite fragments, after departure from their parent bodies, are exposed to intense cosmic-ray bombardment during their travel through space, causing substantial 26Al production. After falling to Earth, atmospheric shielding protects the meteorite fragments from further 26Al production, and its decay can then be used to determine the meteorite's terrestrial age. Meteorite research has also shown that 26Al was relatively abundant at the time of formation of our planetary system. Most meteoriticists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.[1]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
21Al 13 8 21.02804(32)# <35 ns 1/2+#
22Al 13 9 22.01952(10)# 59(3) ms (3)+
23Al 13 10 23.007267(20) 470(30) ms 5/2+#
23mAl ~0.35 s
24Al 13 11 23.9999389(30) 2.053(4) s 4+
24mAl 425.8(1) keV 131.3(25) ms 1+
25Al 13 12 24.9904281(5) 7.183(12) s 5/2+
26Al 13 13 25.98689169(6) 7.17(24)E+5 a 5+
26mAl 228.305(13) keV 6.3452(19) s 0+
27Al 13 14 26.98153863(12) STABLE 5/2+ 1.0000
28Al 13 15 27.98191031(14) 2.2414(12) min 3+
29Al 13 16 28.9804450(13) 6.56(6) min 5/2+
30Al 13 17 29.982960(15) 3.60(6) s 3+
31Al 13 18 30.983947(22) 644(25) ms (3/2,5/2)+
32Al 13 19 31.98812(9) 31.7(8) ms 1+
32mAl 955.7(4) keV 200(20) ns (4+)
33Al 13 20 32.99084(8) 41.7(2) ms (5/2+)#
34Al 13 21 33.99685(12) 56.3(5) ms 4-#
35Al 13 22 34.99986(19) 38.6(4) ms 5/2+#
36Al 13 23 36.00621(23) 90(40) ms
37Al 13 24 37.01068(36) 10.7(13) ms
38Al 13 25 38.01723(78) 7.6(6) ms
39Al 13 26 39.02297(158) 7.6(16) ms 3/2+#
40Al 13 27 40.03145(75)# 10# ms [>260 ns]
41Al 13 28 41.03833(86)# 2# ms [>260 ns] 3/2+#
42Al 13 29 42.04689(97)# 1# ms

Notes

  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

Clusters

In the journal Science of 14 January 2005 it was reported that clusters of 13 aluminium atoms (Al13) had been made to behave like an iodine atom; and, 14 aluminium atoms (Al14) behaved like an alkaline earth atom. The researchers also bound 12 iodine atoms to an Al13 cluster to form a new class of polyiodide. This discovery is reported to give rise to the possibility of a new characterisation of the periodic table: superatoms. The research teams were led by Shiv N. Khanna (Virginia Commonwealth University) and A. Welford Castleman Jr (Penn State University).[2]

References

  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
  • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
  • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.
  1. ^ Robert T. Dodd, Thunderstones and Shooting Stars, pp. 89-90. ISBN 0-674-89137-6.
  2. ^ http://www.science.psu.edu/alert/Castleman1-2005.htm


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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_aluminium". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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