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Isotopes of palladium



Naturally-occurring Palladium (Pd) is composed of six isotopes. The most stable radioisotopes are 107Pd with a half-life of 6.5 million years, 103Pd with a half-life of 17 days, and 100Pd with a half-life of 3.63 days. Eighteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 92.936 u (93Pd) to 119.924 u (120Pd). Most of these have half-lives that are less than a half an hour except 101Pd (half-life: 8.47 hours), 109Pd (half-life: 13.7 hours), and 112Pd (half-life: 21 hours).

Additional recommended knowledge

The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 106Pd, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay product before 106Pd is rhodium and the primary product after is silver.

Radiogenic 107Ag is a decay product of 107Pd and was first discovered in the Santa Clara, California meteorite of 1978.[1] The discoverers suggest that the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10 million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd versus Ag correlations observed in bodies, which have clearly been melted since accretion of the solar system, must reflect the presence of short-lived nuclides in the early solar system.[2]
Standard atomic mass: 106.42(1) u

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
91Pd 46 45 90.94911(61)# 10# ms [>1.5 µs] 7/2+#
92Pd 46 46 91.94042(54)# 1.1(3) s [0.7(+4-2) s] 0+
93Pd 46 47 92.93591(43)# 1.07(12) s (9/2+)
93mPd 0+X keV 9.3(+25-17) s
94Pd 46 48 93.92877(43)# 9.0(5) s 0+
94mPd 4884.4(5) keV 530(10) ns (14+)
95Pd 46 49 94.92469(43)# 10# s 9/2+#
95mPd 1860(500)# keV 13.3(3) s (21/2+)
96Pd 46 50 95.91816(16) 122(2) s 0+
96mPd 2530.8(1) keV 1.81(1) µs 8+
97Pd 46 51 96.91648(32) 3.10(9) min 5/2+#
98Pd 46 52 97.912721(23) 17.7(3) min 0+
99Pd 46 53 98.911768(16) 21.4(2) min (5/2)+
100Pd 46 54 99.908506(12) 3.63(9) d 0+
101Pd 46 55 100.908289(19) 8.47(6) h 5/2+
102Pd 46 56 101.905609(3) STABLE 0+ 0.0102(1)
103Pd 46 57 102.906087(3) 16.991(19) d 5/2+
103mPd 784.79(10) keV 25(2) ns 11/2-
104Pd 46 58 103.904036(4) STABLE 0+ 0.1114(8)
105Pd 46 59 104.905085(4) STABLE 5/2+ 0.2233(8)
106Pd 46 60 105.903486(4) STABLE 0+ 0.2733(3)
107Pd 46 61 106.905133(4) 6.5(3)E+6 a 5/2+
107m1Pd 115.74(12) keV 0.85(10) µs 1/2+
107m2Pd 214.6(3) keV 21.3(5) s 11/2-
108Pd 46 62 107.903892(4) STABLE 0+ 0.2646(9)
109Pd 46 63 108.905950(4) 13.7012(24) h 5/2+
109m1Pd 113.400(10) keV 380(50) ns 1/2+
109m2Pd 188.990(10) keV 4.696(3) min 11/2-
110Pd 46 64 109.905153(12) STABLE [>600E+15 a] 0+ 0.1172(9)
111Pd 46 65 110.907671(12) 23.4(2) min 5/2+
111mPd 172.18(8) keV 5.5(1) h 11/2-
112Pd 46 66 111.907314(19) 21.03(5) h 0+
113Pd 46 67 112.91015(4) 93(5) s (5/2+)
113mPd 81.1(3) keV 0.3(1) s (9/2-)
114Pd 46 68 113.910363(25) 2.42(6) min 0+
115Pd 46 69 114.91368(7) 25(2) s (5/2+)#
115mPd 89.18(25) keV 50(3) s (11/2-)#
116Pd 46 70 115.91416(6) 11.8(4) s 0+
117Pd 46 71 116.91784(6) 4.3(3) s (5/2+)
117mPd 203.2(3) keV 19.1(7) ms (11/2-)#
118Pd 46 72 117.91898(23) 1.9(1) s 0+
119Pd 46 73 118.92311(32)# 0.92(13) s
120Pd 46 74 119.92469(13) 0.5(1) s 0+
121Pd 46 75 120.92887(54)# 400# ms [>300 ns]
122Pd 46 76 121.93055(43)# 300# ms [>300 ns] 0+
123Pd 46 77 122.93493(64)# 200# ms [>300 ns]
124Pd 46 78 123.93688(54)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 0+

Notes

  • The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. The given ranges should be applicable to any normal terrestrial material.
  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  1. ^ W. R. Kelly, G. J. Wasserburg, (1978). "Evidence for the existence of 107Pd in the early solar system". Geophysical Research Letters 5: 1079–1082.
  2. ^ J. H. Chen, G. J. Wasserburg (1990). "The isotopic composition of Ag in meteorites and the presence of 107Pd in protoplanets". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54 (6): 1729-1743. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(90)90404-9.
  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.


Isotopes of rhodium Isotopes of palladium Isotopes of silver
Index to isotope pages
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_palladium". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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