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Isotopes of ytterbium



Naturally occurring Ytterbium (Yb) is composed of 7 stable isotopes, Yb-168, Yb-170, Yb-171, Yb-172, Yb-173, Yb-174, and Yb-176, with Yb-174 being the most abundant (31.83% natural abundance). 27 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Yb-169 with a half-life of 32.026 days, Yb-175 with a half-life of 4.185 days, and Yb-166 with a half life of 56.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 2 hours, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 20 minutes. This element also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being Yb-169m (t½ 46 seconds).

Additional recommended knowledge

The isotopes of ytterbium range in atomic weight from 147.9674 u (Yb-148) to 180.9562 u (Yb-181). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Yb-174 is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before Yb-174 are element 69 (thulium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element 71 (lutetium) isotopes. Of interest to modern quantum optics, the different ytterbium isotopes follow either Bose-Einstein statistics or Fermi-Dirac statistics, leading to interesting behavior in optical lattices.


Standard atomic mass: 173.04(3) u

Table

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
148Yb 70 78 147.96742(64)# 250# ms 0+
149Yb 70 79 148.96404(54)# 0.7(2) s (1/2+,3/2+)
150Yb 70 80 149.95842(43)# 700# ms [>200 ns] 0+
151Yb 70 81 150.95540(32) 1.6(5) s (1/2+)
151m1Yb 750(100)# keV 1.6(5) s (11/2-)
151m2Yb 1790(500)# keV 2.6(7) µs 19/2-#
151m3Yb 2450(500)# keV 20(1) µs 27/2-#
152Yb 70 82 151.95029(22) 3.04(6) s 0+
153Yb 70 83 152.94948(21)# 4.2(2) s 7/2-#
153mYb 2700(100) keV 15(1) µs (27/2-)
154Yb 70 84 153.946394(19) 0.409(2) s 0+
155Yb 70 85 154.945782(18) 1.793(19) s (7/2-)
156Yb 70 86 155.942818(12) 26.1(7) s 0+
157Yb 70 87 156.942628(11) 38.6(10) s 7/2-
158Yb 70 88 157.939866(9) 1.49(13) min 0+
159Yb 70 89 158.94005(2) 1.67(9) min 5/2(-)
160Yb 70 90 159.937552(18) 4.8(2) min 0+
161Yb 70 91 160.937902(17) 4.2(2) min 3/2-
162Yb 70 92 161.935768(17) 18.87(19) min 0+
163Yb 70 93 162.936334(17) 11.05(25) min 3/2-
164Yb 70 94 163.934489(17) 75.8(17) min 0+
165Yb 70 95 164.93528(3) 9.9(3) min 5/2-
166Yb 70 96 165.933882(9) 56.7(1) h 0+
167Yb 70 97 166.934950(5) 17.5(2) min 5/2-
168Yb 70 98 167.933897(5) STABLE [>130E+12 a] 0+ 0.0013(1)
169Yb 70 99 168.935190(5) 32.026(5) d 7/2+
169mYb 24.199(3) keV 46(2) s 1/2-
170Yb 70 100 169.9347618(26) STABLE 0+ 0.0304(15)
170mYb 1258.46(14) keV 370(15) ns 4-
171Yb 70 101 170.9363258(26) STABLE 1/2- 0.1428(57)
171m1Yb 95.282(2) keV 5.25(24) ms 7/2+
171m2Yb 122.416(2) keV 265(20) ns 5/2-
172Yb 70 102 171.9363815(26) STABLE 0+ 0.2183(67)
173Yb 70 103 172.9382108(26) STABLE 5/2- 0.1613(27)
173mYb 398.9(5) keV 2.9(1) µs 1/2-
174Yb 70 104 173.9388621(26) STABLE 0+ 0.3183(92)
175Yb 70 105 174.9412765(26) 4.185(1) d 7/2-
175mYb 514.865(4) keV 68.2(3) ms 1/2-
176Yb 70 106 175.9425717(28) STABLE [>160E+15 a] 0+ 0.1276(41)
176mYb 1050.0(3) keV 11.4(3) s (8)-
177Yb 70 107 176.9452608(28) 1.911(3) h (9/2+)
177mYb 331.5(3) keV 6.41(2) s (1/2-)
178Yb 70 108 177.946647(11) 74(3) min 0+
179Yb 70 109 178.95017(32)# 8.0(4) min (1/2-)
180Yb 70 110 179.95233(43)# 2.4(5) min 0+
181Yb 70 111 180.95615(43)# 1# min 3/2-#

Notes

  • Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

References

  • Isotope masses from Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in Nuclear Physics A729 (2003).
  • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and Atomic Weights Revised (2005).
  • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
    • Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties, Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
    • National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the NuDat 2.1 database (retrieved Sept. 2005).
    • David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.


Isotopes of thulium Isotopes of ytterbium Isotopes of lutetium
Index to isotope pages
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Isotopes_of_ytterbium". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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