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Knoop hardness test
The Knoop hardness test is a microhardness test - a test for mechanical hardness used particularly for very brittle materials or thin sheets, where only a small indentation may be made for testing purposes. A pyramidal diamond point is pressed into the polished surface of the test material with a known force, for a specified dwell time, and the resulting indentation is measured using a microscope. The Knoop hardness HK or KHN is then given by the formula:
HK values are typically in the range from 100 to 1000, when specified in the conventional units of kgf·mm-2. SI units (pascals) are sometimes used instead: 1 kgf·mm-2 = 9.80665 MPa.
The test was developed by F. Knoop and colleagues at the National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) of the USA in 1939, and is defined by the ASTM D-1474 standard.
The advantages of the test are that only a very small sample of material is required, and that it is valid for a wide range of test forces. The main disadvantages are the difficulty of using a microscope to measure the indentation (with an accuracy of 0.5 micrometre), and the time needed to prepare the sample and apply the indenter.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Knoop_hardness_test". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|