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Mass transfer is the phrase commonly used in engineering for physical processes that involve molecular and convective transport of atoms and molecules within physical systems. Mass transfer includes both fluid flow and separation unit operations.
Some common examples of mass transfer processes are the evaporation of water from a pond to the atmosphere; the diffusion of chemical impurities in lakes, rivers, and oceans from natural or artificial point sources; mass transfer is also responsible for the separation of components in an apparatus such as a distillation column. In HVAC examples of a heat and mass exchangers are cooling towers and evaporative coolers where evaporation of water cools that portion which remains as a liquid, as well as cooling and humidifying the air passing through.
The driving force for mass transfer is a difference in concentration; the random motion of molecules causes a net transfer of mass from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The amount of mass transfer can be quantified through the calculation and application of mass transfer coefficients. Mass transfer finds extensive application in chemical engineering problems, where material balance on components is performed.
In astronomy, mass transfer is the process by which matter gravitationally bound to a body, usually a star, fills its Roche lobe and becomes gravitationally bound to a second body, usually a compact object (white dwarf, neutron star or black hole), and is eventually accreted onto it. It is a common phenomenon in binary systems, and may play an important role in some types of supernovae, and pulsars.
For separation processes, thermodynamics determines the extent of separation, while mass transfer determines the rate at which the separation will occur.
Analogies between heat, mass, and momentum transfer
It is important to note that in molecular transport, heat, or mass there are many similarities. The molecular diffusion equations of Newton for momentum, Fourier for heat, and Fick for mass are very similar. Therefore many analogies among these three molecular transport process. A great deal of effort has been devoted in the literature to developing analogies among these three transport processes for turbulent transfer so as to allow prediction of one from any of the others. Reynolds analogy assumes that the turbulent diffusivities are all equal and that the molecular diffusivities mu/ro and Dab are negligible compared to the turbulent diffusivities. When liquids are present and/or drag is present the analogy is not valid. Other analogies, such as von Karman's and Prandtl's, usually results in poor relations. The most successful and most widely used analogy is the Chilton and Colburn J-factor analogy. This analogy is based on experimental data for gases and liquids in both the laminar and turbulent regions. Although it is based on experimental data, it can be shown to satisfy the exact solution derived from laminar flow over a flat plate.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mass_transfer". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|