My watch list
my.chemeurope.com  
Login  

Mevalonate pathway



  The mevalonate pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway or mevalonate-dependent (MAD) route, is an important cellular metabolic pathway present in all higher eukaryotes and many bacteria. It is important for the production of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which serve as the basis for the biosynthesis of molecules used in processes as diverse as protein prenylation, cell membrane maintenance, hormones, protein anchoring, and N-glycosylation. It is also a part of steroid biosynthesis.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Regulation and feedback

Several key enzymes can be activated through DNA transcriptional regulation on activation of SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-1 and -2). This intracellular sensor detects low cholesterol levels and stimulates endogenous production by the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, as well as increasing lipoprotein uptake by up-regulating the LDL receptor. Regulation of this pathway is also achieved by controlling the rate of translation of the mRNA, degradation of reductase and phosphorylation.

For more information on regulation, see HMG-CoA reductase

Pharmacology

A number of drugs target the mevalonate pathway:

Alternative

Plants and apicomplexan protozoa such as malaria parasites have the ability to produce their isoprenoids (terpenoids) using an additional alternative pathway called the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) or non-mevalonate pathway, which takes place in their plastids. In addition, most eubacteria including important pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, synthesize IPP and DMAPP via the non-mevalonate pathway instead.

Reactions

Reaction Diagram Enzyme
Acetyl-CoA (citric acid cycle) is converted to acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase
Acetyl-CoA condenses with acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA).
HMG-CoA synthase
HMG-CoA is reduced to mevalonate by NADPH. This reaction occurs in the cytosol. It is the committed step in cholesterol synthesis, which is why the enzyme catalyzing the reaction is a target of statins.
HMG-CoA reductase
Mevalonate to 5-phosphomevalonate.
mevalonate kinase
5-phosphomevalonate to 5-pyrophosphomevalonate.
phosphomevalonate kinase
Mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate to 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) (see also HIDS).

mevalonate-5-pyrophosphate decarboxylase
3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate is isomerized to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate.
isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase

References

  1. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman. xxxviii, 974, [976] (various pagings). ISBN 0-7167-4684-0.
  2. Swanson KM, Hohl RJ. Anti-cancer therapy: targeting the mevalonate pathway. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006;6:15-37. PMID 16475974.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mevalonate_pathway". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE