Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Between 1751 and 1994 surface ocean pH is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.179 to 8.104 (a change of -0.075).
In the natural carbon cycle, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) represents a balance of fluxes between the oceans, terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Human activities such as land-use changes, the combustion of fossil fuels, and the production of cement have led to a new flux of CO2 into the atmosphere. Some of this has remained in the atmosphere (where it is responsible for the rise in atmospheric concentrations), some is believed to have been taken up by terrestrial plants, and some has been absorbed by the oceans.
When CO2 dissolves, it reacts with water to form a balance of ionic and non-ionic chemical species : dissolved free carbon dioxide (CO2 (aq)), carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO32-). The ratio of these species depends on factors such as seawater temperature and alkalinity (see the article on the ocean's solubility pump for more detail).
Average surface ocean pH
|| pH change
| Pre-industrial (1700s)
|| analysed field
| Present-day (1994)
| 2050 (2×CO2 = 560 ppm)
| 2100 (IS92a)
Dissolving CO2 in seawater also increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in the ocean, and thus decreases ocean pH. The use of the term "ocean acidification" to describe this process was introduced in Caldeira and Wickett (2003). Since the industrial revolution began, it is estimated that surface ocean pH has dropped by slightly less than 0.1 units (on the logarithmic scale of pH), and it is estimated that it will drop by a further 0.3 - 0.5 units by 2100 as the ocean absorbs more anthropogenic CO2. Note that, although the ocean is acidifying, its pH is still greater than 7 (that of neutral water), so the ocean could also be described as becoming less alkaline.
Although the natural absorption of CO2 by the world's oceans helps mitigate the climatic effects of anthropogenic emissions of CO2, it is believed that the resulting decrease in pH will have negative consequences, primarily for oceanic calcifying organisms. These use the calcite or aragonite polymorphs of calcium carbonate to construct cell coverings or skeletons. Calcifiers span the food chain from autotrophs to heterotrophs and include organisms such as coccolithophores, corals, foraminifera, echinoderms, crustaceans and molluscs.
Under normal conditions, calcite and aragonite are stable in surface waters since the carbonate ion is at supersaturating concentrations. However, as ocean pH falls, so does the concentration of this ion, and when carbonate becomes under-saturated, structures made of calcium carbonate are vulnerable to dissolution. Research has already found that corals, coccolithophore algae, foraminifera, shellfish and pteropods experience reduced calcification or enhanced dissolution when exposed to elevated CO2. The Royal Society of London published a comprehensive overview of ocean acidification, and its potential consequences, in June 2005.
While the full ecological consequences of these changes in calcification are still uncertain, it appears likely that calcifying species will be adversely affected. There is also some evidence that the effect of acidification on coccolithophores (among the most abundant phytoplankton in the ocean) in particular may eventually exacerbate climate change, by decreasing the earth's albedo via their effects on oceanic cloud cover.
Aside from calcification (and specifically calcifiers), organisms may suffer other adverse effects, either directly as reproductive or physiological effects (e.g. CO2-induced acidification of body fluids, known as hypercapnia), or indirectly through negative impacts on food resources. However, as with calcification, as yet there is not a full understanding of these processes in marine organisms or ecosystems.
- ^ a b c d e f Orr, James C.; Fabry, Victoria J.; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C.; Feely, Richard A. et al. (2005). "Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms". Nature 437 (7059): 681-686. doi:10.1038/nature04095. ISSN 0028-0836.
- ^ a b c Key, R.M.; Kozyr, A.; Sabine, C.L.; Lee, K.; Wanninkhof, R.; Bullister, J.; Feely, R.A.; Millero, F.; Mordy, C. and Peng, T.-H. (2004). "A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from GLODAP". Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18: GB4031. doi:10.1029/2004GB002247. ISSN 0886-6236.
- ^ Review of Past IPCC Emissions Scenarios, IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (ISBN 0521804930).
- ^ a b Caldeira, K.; Wickett, M.E. (2003). "Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH". Nature 425 (6956): 365-365. doi:10.1038/425365a. ISSN 0028-0836.
- ^ a b Raven, J. A. et al. (2005). Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Royal Society, London, UK.
- ^ Gattuso, J.-P.; Frankignoulle, M.; Bourge, I.; Romaine, S. and Buddemeier, R. W. (1998). "Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification". Global and Planetary Change 18 (1-2): 37-46. doi:10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00035-6. ISSN 0921-8181.
- ^ Riebesell, Ulf; Zondervan, Ingrid; Rost, Björn; Tortell, Philippe D.; Zeebe, Richard E. and François M. M. Morel (2000). "Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2". Nature 407 (6802): 364-367. doi:10.1038/35030078. ISSN 0028-0836. (Subscription required)
- ^ Phillips, Graham; Chris Branagan. "Ocean Acidification – The BIG global warming story", ABC TV Science: Catalyst, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2007-09-13. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
- ^ Gazeau, F.; Quiblier, C.; Jansen, J. M.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Middelburg, J. J. and Heip, C. H. R. (2007). "Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification". Geophysical Research Letters 34: L07603. doi:10.1029/2006GL028554. ISSN 0094-8276.
- ^ Ruttiman, J. (2006). "Sick Seas". Nature 442 (7106): 978-980. doi:10.1038/442978a. ISSN 0028-0836. (Subscription required)
- Cicerone, R.; J. Orr, P. Brewer et al. (2004). "The Ocean in a High CO2 World". EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 85 (37): 351-353. doi:10.1029/2004EO370007. ISSN 0096-3941.
- Doney, S. C. (2006). "The Dangers of Ocean Acidification". Scientific American 294: 58-65. ISSN 0036-8733., (Article preview only).
- Feely, R. A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Lee, Kitack; Berelson, Will; Kleypas, Joanie; Fabry, Victoria J.; Millero, Frank J. (2004). "Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans". Science 305 (5682): 362-366. doi:10.1126/science.1097329. ISSN 0036-8075.
- Henderson, Caspar. "Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem", NewScientist.com news service, 2006-08-05.
- Jacobson, M. Z. (2005). "Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry". Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 110: D07302. doi:10.1029/2004JD005220. ISSN 0148-0227.
- Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins. (2006). Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Further Research, report of a workshop held 18-20 April 2005, St. Petersburg, FL, sponsored by NSF, NOAA and the U.S. Geological Survey, 88pp.
- Kolbert, E. (2006). The Darkening Sea: Carbon emissions and the ocean. The New Yorker magazine. 20 November 2006.
- Sabine, C. L.; Feely, Richard A.; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M.; Lee, Kitack; Bullister, John L. et al. (2004). "The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2". Science 305 (5682): 367-371. doi:10.1126/science.1097403. ISSN 0036-8075.
- Stone, R. (2007). "A World Without Corals?". Science 316 (5825): 678-681. doi:10.1126/science.316.5825.678. ISSN 0036-8075.
Carbonate system calculators
The following packages calculate the state of the carbonate system in seawater (including pH):
- CO2SYS, a stand-alone executable (also available in a version for Microsoft Excel/VBA)
- seacarb, a R package for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux (also available here)
- CSYS, a Matlab script
|Global warming and Climate change|
|Temperatures||Instrumental record · Satellite record · Past 1000 years · Since 1880 · Geologic record|
||Aviation and the environment · Carbon dioxide · Climate sensitivity · Global dimming · Global warming potential · Greenhouse effect · Greenhouse gases · Keeling Curve · Land use, land-use change and forestry · Urban heat island
||Cloud forcing · Glaciation · Global cooling · Ocean variability · Orbital variations · Orbital forcing · Radiative forcing · Solar variation · Volcanism
||Scientific opinion on climate change
|Models||Global climate model|
|Politics||UNFCCC · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change · Global warming controversy · Scientists opposing the mainstream assessment · Climate change denial|
|Potential effects |
|Climate change and agriculture · Economics of global warming · Glacier retreat · National Assessment on Climate Change · Mass extinction · Ozone depletion · Ocean acidification · Sea level rise · Season creep · Shutdown of thermohaline circulation|
|Adaptation||To be developed|
| · |