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Phosphoenolpyruvate (synonyms: phosphoenolpyruvic acid, PEP) is an important chemical compound in biochemistry. It has the highest energy phosphate bond found (-62 KJ/mol) in living organisms, and is involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In plants, it is also involved in the biosynthesis of various aromatic compounds, and in carbon fixation.
PEP is formed by the action of the enzyme enolase on 2-phosphoglycerate. Metabolism of PEP to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates 1 molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level phosphorylation. ATP is one of the major currencies of chemical energy within cells.
Compound C00631 at KEGG Pathway Database. Enzyme 126.96.36.199 at KEGG Pathway Database. Compound C00074 at KEGG Pathway Database. Enzyme 188.8.131.52 at KEGG Pathway Database. Compound C00022 at KEGG Pathway Database.
PEP is formed from the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and hydrolysis of one guanosine triphosphate molecule. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). This reaction is a rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis:
PEP may be used for the synthesis of chorismate through the shikimate pathway. Chorismate may then be metabolized into the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) and other aromatic compounds.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phosphoenolpyruvate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|