Managing dose-, damage- and data-rates in multi-frame spectrum-imaging
As an instrument, the scanning transmission electron microscope is unique in being able to simultaneously explore both local structural and chemical variations in materials at the atomic scale. This is made possible as both types of data are acquired serially, originating simultaneously from sample interactions with a sharply focused electron probe. Unfortunately, such scanned data can be distorted by environmental factors, though recently fast-scanned multi-frame imaging approaches have been shown to mitigate these effects. Here, we demonstrate the same approach but optimized for spectroscopic data; we offer some perspectives on the new potential of multi-frame spectrum-imaging (MFSI) and show how dose-sharing approaches can reduce sample damage, improve crystallographic fidelity, increase data signal-to-noise, or maximize usable field of view. Further, we discuss the potential issue of excessive data-rates in MFSI, and demonstrate a file-compression approach to significantly reduce data storage and transmission burdens.
The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) ... more
The insect chemoreceptor superfamily consists of 2 gene families, the highly diverse gustatory receptors (GRs) found in all arthropods with sequenced genomes and the odorant receptors that evolved from a GR lineage and have been found only in insects to date. Here, I describe relatives of t ... more
The type 2 taste receptors (Tas2rs) comprise a large family of G protein-coupled receptors that recognize compounds bitter to humans and aversive to vertebrates. Tas2rs are expressed in both gustatory and nongustatory tissues, however, identification and functional analyses of T2R-expressin ... more