RNA editing in plant organelles. Why make it easy?
Gene expression in plant organelles involves a number of distinct co- or posttranscriptional nucleic acid modifications: 5′ and 3′ RNA processing, cis- and trans-splicing, RNA stability, and RNA editing. All contribute to the steady-state RNA levels available for the translation of the reduced but essential organellar genetic information. Different from other maturation processes, RNA editing at the transcript level modifies the information encoded by organellar genes and is an essential step for the production of functional proteins. Editing changes are extensive in mitochondria from flowering plants with more than 400 cytidine-to-uridine changes that involve most transcripts, while in chloroplasts they are limited to some RNAs. An additional U-to-C RNA editing reaction is observed with the C-to-U transitions in fern and moss organelles. While RNA editing targets mostly concern coding regions, some events occur in untranslated regions. Whereas RNA editing is genetically and biochemically distinct from other RNA modification activities, evidence is growing for a tight connection between the different processing events. Although the understanding of this astonishing mechanism has increased since its discovery in 1989, some important questions remain unanswered. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the different aspects of C-to-U, and to a lesser extent U-to-C, and look at RNA editing in plants with a particular emphasis on recent developments involving the role of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in this process.
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Just as alchemists always dreamed of turning common metal into gold, their 19th century physicist counterparts dreamed of efficiently turning heat into electricity, a field called thermoelectrics. Such scientists had long known that in conducting materials the flow of energy in the form of ... more
Physicists have, for the first time, explored in detail the time evolution of the conductivity, as well as other quantum-level electron transport characteristics, of a graphene device subjected to periodic ultra-short pulses. To date, the majority of graphene studies have considered the dep ... more
Russian scientists have developed a theoretical model of quantum memory for light, adapting the concept of a hologram to a quantum system. These findings from Anton Vetlugin and Ivan Sokolov from St. Petersburg State University in Russia are published in a study in EPJD. The authors demonst ... more