Heat treatments are very popular methods of food preparation in European countries. Phytosterol present in foodstuffs undergoes oxidative changes during heat treatment, and phytosterol oxides (e.g., 7α-, 7β-hydroxysterol, 5α,6α-, 5β,6β-epoxysterol, 7-ketosterol and triol) are formed. Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) have been associated with cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects in humans. On the other hand, several studies conducted on animals revealed that some phytosterol oxides lower serum triacyglycerol and blood glucose levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on formation of phytosterol oxidation products in selected foodstuffs. The following products were taken into considerations: minced meat (pork and beef), frozen French fries, frozen fish fillets, frozen fish products (e.g., fish sticks), wheat and egg noodles. Sterols and POPs content was evaluated by GC–MS working in total and selected ion monitoring modes. The phytosterol oxidation rate was higher in French fries and fish fillets (0.20–1.69% of total phytosterol content) than in noodles, minced meats and readymade fish products (in 0.04–0.36% range). Method of POPs determination using GC–MS is reported in this study. Results of this study show also that products of the animal origin might be considered as sources of the phytosterol oxides in the human diet.
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Physicists describe how they have synthesized a new material that belongs to the iron-selenide class of superconductors, called LixFe2Se2(NH3)y, in a paper about to be published in EPJ B. The work was carried out by Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt from the University of Augsburg and colleagues. This ... more
The U.S. federal government is significantly underestimating the costs of carbon pollution because it is using a faulty analytical model, according to a new study published in the Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. A more appropriate accounting of costs would pave the way to cle ... more
Springer advisory board member Vladimir V. Dmitriev, along with fellow scientists Yuriy M. Bunkov and Igor A. Fomin, have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B." ... more