This work evaluates the biodegradation of N 4-acetylsulfapyridine (AcSPY) and N 4-acetylsulfamethazine (AcSMZ), metabolites of two of the most commonly used sulfonamides (SAs) in human and veterinary medicine, respectively. Aerobic transformation in effluent wastewater was simulated using aerated fixed-bed bioreactors. No visible changes in concentration were observed in the AcSMZ reactor after 90 days, whereas AcSPY was fully degraded after 32 days of experiment. It was also demonstrated that AcSPY transformed back to its parent compound sulfapyridine (SPY). The environmental presence of these two metabolites in wastewater effluent had been previously investigated and confirmed, together with three more SA acetylated metabolites and their corresponding parent compounds, in 18 different wastewater treatment plants in Hesse (Germany). Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and SPY were the two SAs detected most frequently (90% and 89% of the samples, respectively) and in the highest concentrations (682 ng L−1 for SMX and 532 ng L−1 for SPY). To conclude, hazard quotients were calculated whenever toxicity data were available. None of the SAs studied posed an environmental risk.
María Jesús García-Galán, Tobias Frömel, Jutta Müller, Manuela Peschka, Thomas Knepper, Silvia Díaz-Cruz, Damiá Barceló
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Physicists describe how they have synthesized a new material that belongs to the iron-selenide class of superconductors, called LixFe2Se2(NH3)y, in a paper about to be published in EPJ B. The work was carried out by Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt from the University of Augsburg and colleagues. This ... more
The U.S. federal government is significantly underestimating the costs of carbon pollution because it is using a faulty analytical model, according to a new study published in the Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. A more appropriate accounting of costs would pave the way to cle ... more
Springer advisory board member Vladimir V. Dmitriev, along with fellow scientists Yuriy M. Bunkov and Igor A. Fomin, have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B." ... more