Living cells are structured to create a range of microenvironments that support specific chemical reactions and processes. Understanding how cells function therefore requires detailed knowledge of both the subcellular architecture and the location of specific molecules within this framework. Here we review the development of two correlated cellular imaging techniques that fulfill this need. Cells are first imaged using cryogenic fluorescence microscopy to determine the location of molecules of interest that have been labeled with fluorescent tags. The same specimen is then imaged using soft X-ray tomography to generate a high-contrast, 3D reconstruction of the cells. Data from the two modalities are then combined to produce a composite, information-rich view of the cell. This correlated imaging approach can be applied across the spectrum of problems encountered in cell biology, from basic research to biotechnological and biomedical applications such as the optimization of biofuels and the development of n...
Gerry McDermott; Mark A. Le Gros; Carolyn A. Larabell
We review some outstanding puzzles and experimental anomalies in hadron physics that appear to challenge conventional wisdom and, in some cases, the foundations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We also discuss possible solutions and propose new tests and experiments that could illuminate th ... more
We review the methods developed for combining the parton shower approximation to quantum chromodynamics with fixed-order perturbation theory so as to achieve next-to-leading-order (NLO) accuracy for inclusive observables. These developments have made it possible to generate fully simulated ... more
General classes of mechanisms for generating small neutrino masses are surveyed from a top-down (superstring) perspective. In particular, string constructions have motivated various possibilities involving higher-dimensional operators, string instantons, and wave-function overlaps in large ... more