Aggression is an innate behavior that has likely evolved in the framework of defending or obtaining resources. This complex social behavior is influenced by genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. In many organisms, aggression is critical to survival, but the ability to control and suppress aggression in distinct contexts also is necessary. Invertebrate organisms, with their relatively simple nervous systems and a multiplicity of powerful tools available to examine their often elaborate and complex behavioral displays, have become increasingly valuable models for investigating the genetic and systems biological roots of social behavior. In this protocol, we outline methods for analyzing aggression in Drosophila: The design encompasses eco-ethological constraints that emphasize an understanding of normal aggression. The details include steps for constructing a fight arena, isolating and painting flies, introducing flies to an arena, and videotaping and scoring fights. These experimental protocols are in current use to identify candidate genes important in aggression and to elaborate the neuronal circuitry underlying the display of aggression and other social behaviors.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of endogenous noncoding RNAs that, together with the Argonaute family of proteins (AGOs), silence the expression of complementary mRNA targets posttranscriptionally. Perfectly complementary targets are cleaved within the base-paired region by catalytic ... more
Intrinsic optical changes (light scattering signals) occur in mammalian nerve terminals during and immediately following the arrival of the action potential. In the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary gland), the action potential is coupled to calcium-mediated secretion of the neuropeptid ... more
The skeleton as an organ is widely distributed throughout the entire vertebrate body. Wnt signaling has emerged to play major roles in almost all aspects of skeletal development and homeostasis. Because abnormal Wnt signaling causes various human skeletal diseases, Wnt signaling has become ... more