Six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from five HSP families in the parasitoid, Pteromalus puparum, were evaluated for their response to temperature (−15 ∼ 3°C , and 30 ∼ 42°C for 1 h), heavy metals (0.5 ∼ 5 mM Cd2+ and Cu2+ for 24 h and 60 h), and starvation (24 h). Compared with other insect HSPs, all conserved motifs are found in P. puparumHSPs, and they are very similar to those of the recently sequenced ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. The temporal gene expression patterns indicated that these six HSP genes were all heat‐inducible, of which hsp40 was the most inducible. The temperatures for maximal HSP induction at high and low temperature zone were 36 or 39°C and −3°C, respectively. In the hot zone, all HSP genes have the same initial temperature (33°C) for up‐regulation. Low concentrations of Cd2+ for a short‐term promoted the expression of all HSP genes, but not high concentrations or long‐term treatments. Cu2+ stress for 24 h increased expression of nearly all HSP. Four HSP genes changed after starvation. We infer that all six HSP genes are sensitive to heat. This may help understand the absence of P. puparum during the summer and winter. The expression profiles of six HSP genes in P. puparum under heavy metal stress indicates that HSP is a short‐term response to cellular distress or injury induced by Cd2+ and Cu2+.
The mechanism by which small molecules assemble into microscale tubular structures in aqueous solution remains poorly understood, particularly when the initial building blocks are non‐amphiphilic molecules and no surfactant is used. It is here shown how a subnanometric molecule ... more
The image illustrates a natural phenomenon of droplet formation caused by the condensation of vapor on a nonwettable surface at temperature below the dew point. Real‐time observing the light scattered from the droplets may lead to a new mechanism for vapor sensing. However, the dew point ... more
NO is a key vasodilator in mammalian cardiovascular systems and has been shown to sensitize tissue to γ‐radiation. However, photochemical NO precursors that can be activated by these NIR wavelengths are extremely limited. G. D. Stucky, D. Zhao, P. C. Ford, F. Zhang and co‐workers have ad ... more
A team of pioneering South Korean scientists have succeeded in producing the polymers used for everyday plastics through bioengineering, rather than through the use of fossil fuel based chemicals. This groundbreaking research, which may now allow for the production of environmentally consci ... more
In the past, restoration of paintings and other old artwork often involved application of acrylic resins to consolidate and protect them. One of the most important tasks for modern restorers is thus to remove these layers, because it turns out that acrylic resins not only drastically change ... more
Converting the trash that fills the world's landfills into biofuel may be the answer to both the growing energy crisis and to tackling carbon emissions, claim scientists in Singapore and Switzerland. New research published in Global Change Biology: Bioenergy, reveals how replacing gasoline ... more