Heterogeneous catalytic cracking of lipids into transportation fuels and other specialty chemicals offers a unique opportunity to provide sustainable energy while utilizing the current petroleum infrastructure. This study addresses a possible route for the utilization of phospholipid-containing biomass for production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The first part of the study focused on reaction pathways associated with the catalytic cracking of model phospholipid into fuel-type compounds. The results indicated that phospholipid cracking proceeds via acid-catalyzed mechanisms, which resulted to cleavage of fatty acids and glycerol moieties. Microbial lipids, which contain large concentrations of phospholipids, are a potential non-food related feedstock to displace petroleum. Among possible sources of microbial lipids, activated sludge offers a distinct advantage for its availability and abundance at a potential fee. The second part of this work dealt with the conversion of activated sludge to chemicals of value as fuel components through fluidized-bed catalytic cracking. The effect of moisture level and catalyst loading were determined. Results indicated that moisture level of up to 15 % (weight) has no effect on total product yield. On the other hand, higher catalyst loading resulted to a higher yield of gaseous product. Significant coke deposition was inferred as indicated by the high proportion of phenolic compounds produced from pyrolytic reactions. The results of this study provide a potential route of utilizing bulk lipid feedstocks, without the removal of phosphorus-containing molecules, to produce fuel components.
Emmanuel D. Revellame, William E. Holmes, Tracy J. Benson, Allison L. Forks, W. Todd French, Rafael Hernandez
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Physicists describe how they have synthesized a new material that belongs to the iron-selenide class of superconductors, called LixFe2Se2(NH3)y, in a paper about to be published in EPJ B. The work was carried out by Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt from the University of Augsburg and colleagues. This ... more
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Springer advisory board member Vladimir V. Dmitriev, along with fellow scientists Yuriy M. Bunkov and Igor A. Fomin, have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B." ... more