Recent studies have shown that cerebellar Bergmann glia display coordinated Ca2+ transients in live mice. However, the functional significance of Bergmann glial Ca2+ signaling remains poorly understood. Using transgenic mice that allow selective stimulation of glial cells, we report here that cytosolic Ca2+ regulates uptake of K+ by Bergmann glia, thus providing a powerful mechanism for control of Purkinje cell-membrane potential. The decline in extracellular K+ evoked by agonist-induced Ca2+ in Bergmann glia transiently increased spike activity of Purkinje cells in cerebellar slices as well as in live anesthetized mice. Thus, Bergmann glia play a previously unappreciated role in controlling the membrane potential and thereby the activity of adjacent Purkinje cells.