The reactivity of dissolving pulps towards derivatization or dissolution is a crucial quality parameter and is mainly determined by the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups. When dissolving pulps are produced from paper-grade pulps by cold caustic extraction (CCE), their reactivity is often inferior as compared to commercial prehydrolysis kraft dissolving pulps. It was hypothesized that pulp reactivity can be enhanced by the introduction of small amounts of substituents to facilitate interchain accessibility. In this study, CCE-treated Eucalyptus globulus kraft paper pulp was subjected to TEMPO-mediated oxidation to initiate partial oxidation of the C6-hydroxyl groups to carboxyl groups. The effect of this pulp modification on the reactivity towards xanthation and the subsequent dissolution in diluted aqueous alkali solution (viscose process) as well as the dissolution in complexing and non-complexing solvents, respectively, was thoroughly examined. The results revealed that the oxidized pulps rich in C6-carboxylate groups impeded the xanthation reaction obviously because of the reduced availability of hydroxyl groups. When N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide monohydrate was used as a direct solvent, a very high content of C6-carboxylate groups was found to reduce the solubility of the pulp fibers as less hydrogen bonds can be formed with NMMO·H2O. In the case of dissolution in the complexing solvent cupriethylenediamine, the dissolution mechanism of cellulose was not deteriorated by the high content of C6-carboxylate groups. Instead, the oxidation procedure increased the hydrophilic character and the swelling capacity of the outer cell wall layers allowed homogeneous dissolution.
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Physicists describe how they have synthesized a new material that belongs to the iron-selenide class of superconductors, called LixFe2Se2(NH3)y, in a paper about to be published in EPJ B. The work was carried out by Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt from the University of Augsburg and colleagues. This ... more
The U.S. federal government is significantly underestimating the costs of carbon pollution because it is using a faulty analytical model, according to a new study published in the Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. A more appropriate accounting of costs would pave the way to cle ... more
Springer advisory board member Vladimir V. Dmitriev, along with fellow scientists Yuriy M. Bunkov and Igor A. Fomin, have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B." ... more