Acylglycerols in castor oil less polar than triricinolein were identified by electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry using the lithium adducts of the acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. Thirty four new molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in castor oil were identified by MS. The chain lengths of fatty acid substituents were C16, C18, C20, C22 and C23. The numbers of double bonds of the fatty acids were from zero to three. The numbers of hydroxyl groups on the fatty acid chains were from zero to three as previously reported. The structure of fatty acid, OH18:2, was proposed as 12-hydroxy-9,13-octadecadienoic acid. An unusual odd-numbered long-chain fatty acid, 23:0 (tricosanoic acid), was identified. Some new estolides and tetraacylglycerols, were identified as (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-ricinoleoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (RRRL), (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-ricinoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (RRRO), (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-ricinoleoyl-palmitoyl-glycerol (RRRP), (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-ricinoleoyl-stearoyl-glycerol (RRRS) and (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl)-ricinoleoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol (RRRLn). The normal fatty acid (non-hydroxylated) of these tetraacylglycerols were directly attached to the glycerol backbone. The biosynthetic pathway of castor oil is proposed.
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Physicists describe how they have synthesized a new material that belongs to the iron-selenide class of superconductors, called LixFe2Se2(NH3)y, in a paper about to be published in EPJ B. The work was carried out by Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt from the University of Augsburg and colleagues. This ... more
The U.S. federal government is significantly underestimating the costs of carbon pollution because it is using a faulty analytical model, according to a new study published in the Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. A more appropriate accounting of costs would pave the way to cle ... more
Springer advisory board member Vladimir V. Dmitriev, along with fellow scientists Yuriy M. Bunkov and Igor A. Fomin, have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B." ... more