Organic solderable preservative (OSP) has been adopted as the Cu substrate surface finish in flip-chip solder joints for many years. In this study, the electromigration behavior of lead-free Sn-Cu solder alloys with thin-film under bump metallization and OSP surface finish was investigated. The results showed that severe damage occurred on the substrate side (cathode side), whereas the damage on the chip side (cathode side) was not severe. The damage on the substrate side included void formation, copper dissolution, and formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The OSP Cu interface on the substrate side became the weakest point in the solder joint even when thin-film metallization was used on the chip side. Three-dimensional simulations were employed to investigate the current density distribution in the area between the OSP Cu surface finish and the solder. The results indicated that the current density was higher along the periphery of the bonding area between the solder and the Cu pad, consistent with the area of IMC and void formation in our experimental results.
Ming-Hui Chu, S.W. Liang, Chih Chen, Annie T. Huang
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Physicists describe how they have synthesized a new material that belongs to the iron-selenide class of superconductors, called LixFe2Se2(NH3)y, in a paper about to be published in EPJ B. The work was carried out by Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt from the University of Augsburg and colleagues. This ... more
The U.S. federal government is significantly underestimating the costs of carbon pollution because it is using a faulty analytical model, according to a new study published in the Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. A more appropriate accounting of costs would pave the way to cle ... more
Springer advisory board member Vladimir V. Dmitriev, along with fellow scientists Yuriy M. Bunkov and Igor A. Fomin, have been named winners of the 2008 Fritz London Memorial Prize for their discovery and understanding of the "Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B." ... more