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15,592 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Nitric oxide negatively regulates AKT1-mediated potassium uptake through modulating vitamin B6 homeostasis in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

11-11-2014 | Jinchan Xia; Dongdong Kong; Shaowu Xue; Wang Tian; Nan Li; Fang Bao; Yong Hu; Jing Du; Yu Wang; Xiaojun Pan; Lei Wan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Nitric oxide (NO), an active signaling molecule in plants, is involved in numerous physiological processes and adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Under high-salt conditions, plants accumulate NO quickly, and reorganize Na+ and K+ contents. However, the molecular connection between NO ...

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Horizontal transfer beyond genes [Microbiology]

11-11-2014 | Eugene V. Koonin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major process in the evolution of bacteria and archaea (1–3) that is thought to be the principal source of functional innovation in microbial evolution (4, 5). The signal of vertical, tree-like evolution is detectable primarily among genes encoding components ...

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The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes [Plant Biology]

11-11-2014 | Zsuzsanna Mérai; Nina Chumak; Marcelina García-Aguilar; Tzung-Fu Hsieh; Toshiro Nishimura; Vera K. Schoft; János Bin ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases ...

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Protease-based synthetic sensing and signal amplification [Applied Biological Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Viktor Stein; Kirill Alexandrov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The bottom-up design of protein-based signaling networks is a key goal of synthetic biology; yet, it remains elusive due to our inability to tailor-make signal transducers and receptors that can be readily compiled into defined signaling networks. Here, we report a generic approach for the ...

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Reply to Hedrick et al.: Trophy hunting influences the distribution of trait values through demographic impacts [Biological Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Lochran W. Traill; Susanne Schindler; Tim Coulson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Coltman et al. (1) claimed that the “production of smaller-horned, lighter rams and fewer trophies” is “an evolutionary response to sport hunting of bighorn trophy rams.” Using data from the same population, we conclude (2) that the very rapid shift in body mass they report was principally ...

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Scaling laws governing stochastic growth and division of single bacterial cells [Microbiology]

11-11-2014 | Srividya Iyer-Biswas; Charles S. Wright; Jonathan T. Henry; Klevin Lo; Stanislav Burov; Yihan Lin; Gavin E. Crooks; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Uncovering the quantitative laws that govern the growth and division of single cells remains a major challenge. Using a unique combination of technologies that yields unprecedented statistical precision, we find that the sizes of individual Caulobacter crescentus cells increase exponentially in ...

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Structural basis and distal effects of Gag substrate coevolution in drug resistance to HIV-1 protease [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

11-11-2014 | Ayşegül Özen; Kuan-Hung Lin; Nese Kurt Yilmaz; Celia A. Schiffer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Drug resistance mutations in response to HIV-1 protease inhibitors are selected not only in the drug target but elsewhere in the viral genome, especially at the protease cleavage sites in the precursor protein Gag. To understand the molecular basis of this protease–substrate coevolution, we ...

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Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field [Economic Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Loukas Balafoutas; Nikos Nikiforakis; Bettina Rockenbach, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial ...

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Developing functional musculoskeletal tissues through hypoxia and lysyl oxidase-induced collagen cross-linking [Cell Biology]

11-11-2014 | Eleftherios A. Makris; Donald J. Responte; Nikolaos K. Paschos; Jerry C. Hu; Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The inability to recapitulate native tissue biomechanics, especially tensile properties, hinders progress in regenerative medicine. To address this problem, strategies have focused on enhancing collagen production. However, manipulating collagen cross-links, ubiquitous throughout all tissues and ...

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Reply to Maxwell et al.: Stable isotopes and their potential for interpreting archaeobotanical remains [Biological Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Simone Riehl; Konstantin E. Pustovoytov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

We thank Maxwell et al. (1) for their interest in our study and agree that multielement isotopic analysis helps interpret ancient agricultural systems. Measurements of δ15N on archaeobotanical crop seeds have corroborated hypotheses of Near Eastern cultivation under gradually less-fertile soil ...

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