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322 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Coselected genes determine adaptive variation in herbivore resistance throughout the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana [Evolution]

31-Mar-2015 | Benjamin Brachi; Christopher G. Meyer; Romain Villoutreix; Alexander Platt; Timothy C. Morton; Fabrice Roux; Joy Ber ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The “mustard oil bomb” is a major defense mechanism in the Brassicaceae, which includes crops such as canola and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants produce and store blends of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Upon tissue rupture by natural enemies, ...

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Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets {beta}-1,3-glucan [Microbiology]

24-Mar-2015 | Jeff S. Piotrowski; Hiroki Okada; Fachuang Lu; Sheena C. Li; Li Hinchman; Ashish Ranjan; Damon L. Smith; Alan J. Hig ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

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Implications of xenoglycan sensitivity for increased cancer risk [Biological Sciences]

24-Mar-2015 | Kimberley J. Mackenzie, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The excellent study by Samraj et al. (1) shows that dietary intake of the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) promotes the production of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. The resulting “xenosialitis” and associated chronic inflammation was shown to contribute to carcinogenesis. This ...

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Heme-thiolate ferryl of aromatic peroxygenase is basic and reactive [Chemistry]

24-Mar-2015 | Xiaoshi Wang; René Ullrich; Martin Hofrichter; John T. Groves, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of the ferryl intermediate (APO-II) from APO, the heme-thiolate peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita, is described. APO-II was generated by reaction of the ferric enzyme with metachloroperoxybenzoic acid in the presence of nitroxyl radicals and detected ...

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KCC2 activity is critical in limiting the onset and severity of status epilepticus [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Liliya Silayeva; Tarek Z. Deeb; Rochelle M. Hines; Matt R. Kelley; Michaelanne B. Munoz; Henry H. C. Lee; Nicholas J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The K+/Cl– cotransporter (KCC2) allows adult neurons to maintain low intracellular Cl– levels, which are a prerequisite for efficient synaptic inhibition upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Deficits in KCC2 activity are implicated in epileptogenesis, but how increased neuronal ...

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Thioredoxin, a master regulator of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in plant mitochondria [Plant Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Danilo M. Daloso; Karolin Müller; Toshihiro Obata; Alexandra Florian; Takayuki Tohge; Alexandra Bottcher; Christophe ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Plant mitochondria have a fully operational tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that plays a central role in generating ATP and providing carbon skeletons for a range of biosynthetic processes in both heterotrophic and photosynthetic tissues. The cycle enzyme-encoding genes have been well ...

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Mitochondrial metabolism is regulated by thioredoxin [Plant Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Ian Max Møller, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In PNAS, Daloso et al. (1) show that, in plant cells, the activities of two enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase, in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the mitochondria, as well as one cytosolic enzyme associated with the cycle (ATP-citrate lyase), are regulated by reversible ...

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Functional analysis of (4S)-limonene synthase mutants reveals determinants of catalytic outcome in a model monoterpene synthase [Biochemistry]

17-Mar-2015 | Narayanan Srividya; Edward M. Davis; Rodney B. Croteau; B. Markus Lange, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Crystal structural data for (4S)-limonene synthase [(4S)-LS] of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) were used to infer which amino acid residues are in close proximity to the substrate and carbocation intermediates of the enzymatic reaction. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of 48 amino acids combined with ...

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Glucose-responsive insulin activity by covalent modification with aliphatic phenylboronic acid conjugates [Applied Biological Sciences]

24-Feb-2015 | Danny Hung-Chieh Chou; Matthew J. Webber; Benjamin C. Tang; Amy B. Lin; Lavanya S. Thapa; David Deng; Jonathan V. Tr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Since its discovery and isolation, exogenous insulin has dramatically changed the outlook for patients with diabetes. However, even when patients strictly follow an insulin regimen, serious complications can result as patients experience both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. Several ...

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Tetrahydrobiopterin and alkylglycerol monooxygenase substantially alter the murine macrophage lipidome [Biochemistry]

24-Feb-2015 | Katrin Watschinger; Markus A. Keller; Eileen McNeill; Mohammad T. Alam; Steven Lai; Sabrina Sailer; Veronika Rauch; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Tetrahydrobiopterin is a cofactor synthesized from GTP with well-known roles in enzymatic nitric oxide synthesis and aromatic amino acid hydroxylation. It is used to treat mild forms of phenylketonuria. Less is known about the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in lipid metabolism, although it is ...

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