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314 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Glucose-responsive insulin activity by covalent modification with aliphatic phenylboronic acid conjugates [Applied Biological Sciences]

24-Feb-2015 | Danny Hung-Chieh Chou; Matthew J. Webber; Benjamin C. Tang; Amy B. Lin; Lavanya S. Thapa; David Deng; Jonathan V. Tr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Since its discovery and isolation, exogenous insulin has dramatically changed the outlook for patients with diabetes. However, even when patients strictly follow an insulin regimen, serious complications can result as patients experience both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. Several ...

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Tetrahydrobiopterin and alkylglycerol monooxygenase substantially alter the murine macrophage lipidome [Biochemistry]

24-Feb-2015 | Katrin Watschinger; Markus A. Keller; Eileen McNeill; Mohammad T. Alam; Steven Lai; Sabrina Sailer; Veronika Rauch; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Tetrahydrobiopterin is a cofactor synthesized from GTP with well-known roles in enzymatic nitric oxide synthesis and aromatic amino acid hydroxylation. It is used to treat mild forms of phenylketonuria. Less is known about the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in lipid metabolism, although it is ...

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Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin functions as crucial chaperone reservoir in Leishmania infantum [Biochemistry]

17-Feb-2015 | Filipa Teixeira; Helena Castro; Tânia Cruz; Eric Tse; Philipp Koldewey; Daniel R. Southworth; Ana M. Tomás; Ursula Jakob, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cytosolic eukaryotic 2-Cys-peroxiredoxins have been widely reported to act as dual-function proteins, either detoxifying reactive oxygen species or acting as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation. Several stimuli, including peroxide-mediated sulfinic acid formation at the active site ...

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Structure and mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarM, the wall teichoic acid {alpha}-glycosyltransferase [Microbiology]

10-Feb-2015 | Solmaz Sobhanifar; Liam James Worrall; Robert J. Gruninger; Gregory A. Wasney; Markus Blaukopf; Lars Baumann; Emilie ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Unique to Gram-positive bacteria, wall teichoic acids are anionic glycopolymers cross-stitched to a thick layer of peptidoglycan. The polyol phosphate subunits of these glycopolymers are decorated with GlcNAc sugars that are involved in phage binding, genetic exchange, host antibody response, ...

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Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

03-Feb-2015 | Tran B. Nguyen; John D. Crounse; Alex P. Teng; Jason M. St. Clair; Fabien Paulot; Glenn M. Wolfe; Paul O. Wennberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other ...

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Fatty acid synthase is preferentially degraded by autophagy upon nitrogen starvation in yeast [Cell Biology]

03-Feb-2015 | Tomer Shpilka; Evelyn Welter; Noam Borovsky; Nira Amar; Frida Shimron; Yoav Peleg; Zvulun Elazar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic process, leads to the degradation of cytosolic proteins and organelles in the vacuole/lysosome. Different forms of selective autophagy have recently been described. Starvation-induced protein degradation, however, is considered to be ...

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T box riboswitches in Actinobacteria: Translational regulation via novel tRNA interactions [Genetics]

27-Jan-2015 | Anna V. Sherwood; Frank J. Grundy; Tina M. Henkin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The T box riboswitch regulates many amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria. T box riboswitch-mediated gene regulation was shown previously to occur at the level of transcription attenuation via structural rearrangements in the 5′ untranslated (leader) region of the mRNA in response to ...

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The butterfly effect in cancer: A single base mutation can remodel the cell [Medical Sciences]

27-Jan-2015 | Jonathan R. Hart; Yaoyang Zhang; Lujian Liao; Lynn Ueno; Lisa Du; Marloes Jonkers; John R. Yates III; Peter K. Vogt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We have compared the proteome, transcriptome, and metabolome of two cell lines: the human breast epithelial line MCF-10A and its mutant descendant MCF-10A-H1047R. These cell lines are derived from the same parental stock and differ by a single amino acid substitution (H1047R) caused by a single ...

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Ab initio simulations and the Miller prebiotic synthesis experiment [Physical Sciences]

27-Jan-2015 | Jeffrey L. Bada; Henderson James Cleaves II, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Saitta and Saija (1) claim that ab initio simulations of the 1953 Miller experiment (2) provide new insights into the mechanism of prebiotic synthesis of glycine (Gly) and, by implication, other molecules in this classic experiment. However, decades of research into prebiotic amino acid formation ...

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Tissue-based metabolic labeling of polysialic acids in living primary hippocampal neurons [Chemistry]

20-Jan-2015 | Kyungtae Kang; Sunghoon Joo; Ji Yu Choi; Sujeong Geum; Seok-Pyo Hong; Seung-Yeul Lee; Yong Ho Kim; Seong-Min Kim; My ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The posttranslational modification of neural cell-adhesion molecule (NCAM) with polysialic acid (PSA) and the spatiotemporal distribution of PSA-NCAM play an important role in the neuronal development. In this work, we developed a tissue-based strategy for metabolically incorporating an unnatural ...

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