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317 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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KCC2 activity is critical in limiting the onset and severity of status epilepticus [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Liliya Silayeva; Tarek Z. Deeb; Rochelle M. Hines; Matt R. Kelley; Michaelanne B. Munoz; Henry H. C. Lee; Nicholas J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The K+/Cl– cotransporter (KCC2) allows adult neurons to maintain low intracellular Cl– levels, which are a prerequisite for efficient synaptic inhibition upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Deficits in KCC2 activity are implicated in epileptogenesis, but how increased neuronal ...

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Thioredoxin, a master regulator of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in plant mitochondria [Plant Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Danilo M. Daloso; Karolin Müller; Toshihiro Obata; Alexandra Florian; Takayuki Tohge; Alexandra Bottcher; Christophe ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Plant mitochondria have a fully operational tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that plays a central role in generating ATP and providing carbon skeletons for a range of biosynthetic processes in both heterotrophic and photosynthetic tissues. The cycle enzyme-encoding genes have been well ...

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Mitochondrial metabolism is regulated by thioredoxin [Plant Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Ian Max Møller, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In PNAS, Daloso et al. (1) show that, in plant cells, the activities of two enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase, in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the mitochondria, as well as one cytosolic enzyme associated with the cycle (ATP-citrate lyase), are regulated by reversible ...

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Glucose-responsive insulin activity by covalent modification with aliphatic phenylboronic acid conjugates [Applied Biological Sciences]

24-Feb-2015 | Danny Hung-Chieh Chou; Matthew J. Webber; Benjamin C. Tang; Amy B. Lin; Lavanya S. Thapa; David Deng; Jonathan V. Tr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Since its discovery and isolation, exogenous insulin has dramatically changed the outlook for patients with diabetes. However, even when patients strictly follow an insulin regimen, serious complications can result as patients experience both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. Several ...

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Tetrahydrobiopterin and alkylglycerol monooxygenase substantially alter the murine macrophage lipidome [Biochemistry]

24-Feb-2015 | Katrin Watschinger; Markus A. Keller; Eileen McNeill; Mohammad T. Alam; Steven Lai; Sabrina Sailer; Veronika Rauch; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Tetrahydrobiopterin is a cofactor synthesized from GTP with well-known roles in enzymatic nitric oxide synthesis and aromatic amino acid hydroxylation. It is used to treat mild forms of phenylketonuria. Less is known about the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in lipid metabolism, although it is ...

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Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin functions as crucial chaperone reservoir in Leishmania infantum [Biochemistry]

17-Feb-2015 | Filipa Teixeira; Helena Castro; Tânia Cruz; Eric Tse; Philipp Koldewey; Daniel R. Southworth; Ana M. Tomás; Ursula Jakob, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cytosolic eukaryotic 2-Cys-peroxiredoxins have been widely reported to act as dual-function proteins, either detoxifying reactive oxygen species or acting as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation. Several stimuli, including peroxide-mediated sulfinic acid formation at the active site ...

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Structure and mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarM, the wall teichoic acid {alpha}-glycosyltransferase [Microbiology]

10-Feb-2015 | Solmaz Sobhanifar; Liam James Worrall; Robert J. Gruninger; Gregory A. Wasney; Markus Blaukopf; Lars Baumann; Emilie ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Unique to Gram-positive bacteria, wall teichoic acids are anionic glycopolymers cross-stitched to a thick layer of peptidoglycan. The polyol phosphate subunits of these glycopolymers are decorated with GlcNAc sugars that are involved in phage binding, genetic exchange, host antibody response, ...

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Rapid deposition of oxidized biogenic compounds to a temperate forest [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

03-Feb-2015 | Tran B. Nguyen; John D. Crounse; Alex P. Teng; Jason M. St. Clair; Fabien Paulot; Glenn M. Wolfe; Paul O. Wennberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We report fluxes and dry deposition velocities for 16 atmospheric compounds above a southeastern United States forest, including: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, peroxyacetic acid, organic hydroxy nitrates, and other ...

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Fatty acid synthase is preferentially degraded by autophagy upon nitrogen starvation in yeast [Cell Biology]

03-Feb-2015 | Tomer Shpilka; Evelyn Welter; Noam Borovsky; Nira Amar; Frida Shimron; Yoav Peleg; Zvulun Elazar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic process, leads to the degradation of cytosolic proteins and organelles in the vacuole/lysosome. Different forms of selective autophagy have recently been described. Starvation-induced protein degradation, however, is considered to be ...

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T box riboswitches in Actinobacteria: Translational regulation via novel tRNA interactions [Genetics]

27-Jan-2015 | Anna V. Sherwood; Frank J. Grundy; Tina M. Henkin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The T box riboswitch regulates many amino acid-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria. T box riboswitch-mediated gene regulation was shown previously to occur at the level of transcription attenuation via structural rearrangements in the 5′ untranslated (leader) region of the mRNA in response to ...

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