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534 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress [Cell Biology]

16-Jun-2015 | Paula Nunes; Isabelle Roth; Paolo Meda; Eric Féraille; Dennis Brown; Udo Hasler, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell ...

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Reverse switching of surface roughness in a self-organized polydomain liquid crystal coating [Applied Physical Sciences]

31-Mar-2015 | Danqing Liu; Ling Liu; Patrick R. Onck; Dirk J. Broer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In this work we propose randomly ordered polydomain nematic liquid crystal polymer networks to reversibly generate notable jagged relief patterns at a polymer coating surface by light illumination. The domain size is controlled by the addition of traces of partly insoluble fluorinated acrylate. ...

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Coding principles of the canonical cortical microcircuit in the avian brain [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Ana Calabrese; Sarah M. N. Woolley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Mammalian neocortex is characterized by a layered architecture and a common or “canonical” microcircuit governing information flow among layers. This microcircuit is thought to underlie the computations required for complex behavior. Despite the absence of a six-layered cortex, birds are capable ...

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Cells as liquid motors: Mechanosensitivity emerges from collective dynamics of actomyosin cortex [Physics]

03-Mar-2015 | Jocelyn Étienne; Jonathan Fouchard; Démosthène Mitrossilis; Nathalie Bufi; Pauline Durand-Smet; Atef Asnacios, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Living cells adapt and respond actively to the mechanical properties of their environment. In addition to biochemical mechanotransduction, evidence exists for a myosin-dependent purely mechanical sensitivity to the stiffness of the surroundings at the scale of the whole cell. Using a minimal ...

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Dendritic cell SIRT1-HIF1{alpha} axis programs the differentiation of CD4+ T cells through IL-12 and TGF-{beta}1 [Immunology and Inflammation]

03-Mar-2015 | Guangwei Liu; Yujing Bi; Lixiang Xue; Yan Zhang; Hui Yang; Xi Chen; Yun Lu; Zhengguo Zhang; Huanrong Liu; Xiao Wang; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into distinct lineages plays critical roles in mediating adaptive immunity or maintaining immune tolerance. In addition to being a first line of defense, the innate immune system also actively instructs adaptive immunity through antigen presentation and ...

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Thermodynamic mechanism for inhibition of lactose permease by the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc [Biochemistry]

24-Feb-2015 | Parameswaran Hariharan; Dhandayuthapani Balasubramaniam; Alan Peterkofsky; H. Ronald Kaback; Lan Guan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In a variety of bacteria, the phosphotransferase protein IIAGlc plays a key regulatory role in catabolite repression in addition to its role in the vectorial phosphorylation of glucose catalyzed by the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). The lactose permease (LacY) ...

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Immune-mediated antitumor effect by type 2 diabetes drug, metformin [Immunology and Inflammation]

10-Feb-2015 | Shingo Eikawa; Mikako Nishida; Shusaku Mizukami; Chihiro Yamazaki; Eiichi Nakayama; Heiichiro Udono, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Metformin, a prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that this mechanism may be immune-mediated. Metformin enabled normal but not T-cell–deficient SCID mice to reject solid tumors. In ...

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Protein folding and binding can emerge as evolutionary spandrels through structural coupling [Evolution]

10-Feb-2015 | Michael Manhart; Alexandre V. Morozov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Binding interactions between proteins and other molecules mediate numerous cellular processes, including metabolism, signaling, and gene regulation. These interactions often evolve in response to changes in the protein’s chemical or physical environment (such as the addition of an antibiotic). ...

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Quantum dot/antibody conjugates for in vivo cytometric imaging in mice [Chemistry]

03-Feb-2015 | Hee-Sun Han; Elisabeth Niemeyer; Yuhui Huang; Walid S. Kamoun; John D. Martin; Jayeeta Bhaumik; Yunching Chen; Sylvi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Multiplexed, phenotypic, intravital cytometric imaging requires novel fluorophore conjugates that have an appropriate size for long circulation and diffusion and show virtually no nonspecific binding to cells/serum while binding to cells of interest with high specificity. In addition, these ...

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ETS transcription factor ETV2 directly converts human fibroblasts into functional endothelial cells [Cell Biology]

06-Jan-2015 | Rimpei Morita; Mayu Suzuki; Hidenori Kasahara; Nana Shimizu; Takashi Shichita; Takashi Sekiya; Akihiro Kimura; Ken-i ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Transplantation of endothelial cells (ECs) is a promising therapeutic approach for ischemic disorders. In addition, the generation of ECs has become increasingly important for providing vascular plexus to regenerated organs, such as the liver. Although many attempts have been made to generate ECs ...

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