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528 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Immune-mediated antitumor effect by type 2 diabetes drug, metformin [Immunology and Inflammation]

10-Feb-2015 | Shingo Eikawa; Mikako Nishida; Shusaku Mizukami; Chihiro Yamazaki; Eiichi Nakayama; Heiichiro Udono, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Metformin, a prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that this mechanism may be immune-mediated. Metformin enabled normal but not T-cell–deficient SCID mice to reject solid tumors. In ...

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Protein folding and binding can emerge as evolutionary spandrels through structural coupling [Evolution]

10-Feb-2015 | Michael Manhart; Alexandre V. Morozov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Binding interactions between proteins and other molecules mediate numerous cellular processes, including metabolism, signaling, and gene regulation. These interactions often evolve in response to changes in the protein’s chemical or physical environment (such as the addition of an antibiotic). ...

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Quantum dot/antibody conjugates for in vivo cytometric imaging in mice [Chemistry]

03-Feb-2015 | Hee-Sun Han; Elisabeth Niemeyer; Yuhui Huang; Walid S. Kamoun; John D. Martin; Jayeeta Bhaumik; Yunching Chen; Sylvi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Multiplexed, phenotypic, intravital cytometric imaging requires novel fluorophore conjugates that have an appropriate size for long circulation and diffusion and show virtually no nonspecific binding to cells/serum while binding to cells of interest with high specificity. In addition, these ...

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ETS transcription factor ETV2 directly converts human fibroblasts into functional endothelial cells [Cell Biology]

06-Jan-2015 | Rimpei Morita; Mayu Suzuki; Hidenori Kasahara; Nana Shimizu; Takashi Shichita; Takashi Sekiya; Akihiro Kimura; Ken-i ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Transplantation of endothelial cells (ECs) is a promising therapeutic approach for ischemic disorders. In addition, the generation of ECs has become increasingly important for providing vascular plexus to regenerated organs, such as the liver. Although many attempts have been made to generate ECs ...

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PTEN signaling through RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (RAF1)/ERK in the epididymis is essential for male fertility [Developmental Biology]

30-Dec-2014 | Bingfang Xu; Angela M. Washington; Barry T. Hinton, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Without a fully developed initial segment, the most proximal region of the epididymis, male infertility results. Therefore, it is important to understand the development and regulation of this crucial region. In addition to distinctively high activity levels of the components of the ERK pathway, ...

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Structural basis of HIV-1 capsid recognition by PF74 and CPSF6 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

30-Dec-2014 | Akash Bhattacharya; Steven L. Alam; Thomas Fricke; Kaneil Zadrozny; Jaroslaw Sedzicki; Alexander B. Taylor; Borries ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Upon infection of susceptible cells by HIV-1, the conical capsid formed by ∼250 hexamers and 12 pentamers of the CA protein is delivered to the cytoplasm. The capsid shields the RNA genome and proteins required for reverse transcription. In addition, the surface of the capsid mediates numerous ...

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Carlactone is converted to carlactonoic acid by MAX1 in Arabidopsis and its methyl ester can directly interact with AtD14 in vitro [Plant Biology]

16-Dec-2014 | Satoko Abe; Aika Sado; Kai Tanaka; Takaya Kisugi; Kei Asami; Saeko Ota; Hyun Il Kim; Kaori Yoneyama; Xiaonan Xie; To ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Strigolactones (SLs) stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and induce hyphal branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. In addition, they have been classified as a new group of plant hormones essential for shoot branching inhibition. It has been demonstrated thus ...

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Activity-regulating structural changes and autoantibody epitopes in transglutaminase 2 assessed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange [Biochemistry]

02-Dec-2014 | Rasmus Iversen; Simon Mysling; Kathrin Hnida; Thomas J. D. Jørgensen; Ludvig M. Sollid, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The multifunctional enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is the target of autoantibodies in the gluten-sensitive enteropathy celiac disease. In addition, the enzyme is responsible for deamidation of gluten peptides, which are subsequently targeted by T cells. To understand the regulation of TG2 ...

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XerD-mediated FtsK-independent integration of TLC{phi} into the Vibrio cholerae genome [Microbiology]

25-Nov-2014 | Caroline Midonet; Bhabatosh Das; Evelyne Paly; Francois-Xavier Barre, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

As in most bacteria, topological problems arising from the circularity of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes, chrI and chrII, are resolved by the addition of a crossover at a specific site of each chromosome, dif, by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. The reaction is under the control of ...

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Reply to Metson et al.: The importance of phosphorus perturbations [Physical Sciences]

18-Nov-2014 | Gidon Eshel; Alon Shepon; Tamar Makov; Ron Milo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

We thank Metson et al. (1) for their addition to our paper (2). These authors raise an important point, and are definitely right in pointing out the global importance of phosphorous and the dominant role of the livestock industry in its use. Our omission of phosphorous from our calculations, ...

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