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539 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Astrocytes phagocytose focal dystrophies from shortening myelin segments in the optic nerve of Xenopus laevis at metamorphosis [Neuroscience]

18-Aug-2015 | Elizabeth A. Mills; Chung-ha O. Davis; Eric A. Bushong; Daniela Boassa; Keun-Young Kim; Mark H. Ellisman; Nicholas M ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Oligodendrocytes can adapt to increases in axon diameter through the addition of membrane wraps to myelin segments. Here, we report that myelin segments can also decrease their length in response to optic nerve (ON) shortening during Xenopus laevis metamorphic remodeling. EM-based analyses ...

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Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1 [Microbiology]

04-Aug-2015 | Ann-Katrin Felux; Dieter Spiteller; Janosch Klebensberger; David Schleheck, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a ...

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Size distribution of particles in Saturn's rings from aggregation and fragmentation [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

04-Aug-2015 | Nikolai Brilliantov; P. L. Krapivsky; Anna Bodrova; Frank Spahn; Hisao Hayakawa; Vladimir Stadnichuk; Jürgen Schmidt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Saturn’s rings consist of a huge number of water ice particles, with a tiny addition of rocky material. They form a flat disk, as the result of an interplay of angular momentum conservation and the steady loss of energy in dissipative interparticle collisions. For particles in the size range ...

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CBR antimicrobials inhibit RNA polymerase via at least two bridge-helix cap-mediated effects on nucleotide addition [Biochemistry]

04-Aug-2015 | Brian Bae; Dhananjaya Nayak; Ananya Ray; Arkady Mustaev; Robert Landick; Seth A. Darst, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

RNA polymerase inhibitors like the CBR class that target the enzyme’s complex catalytic center are attractive leads for new antimicrobials. Catalysis by RNA polymerase involves multiple rearrangements of bridge helix, trigger loop, and active-center side chains that isomerize the triphosphate of ...

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Binary nanoparticle superlattices of soft-particle systems [Physics]

04-Aug-2015 | Alex Travesset, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The solid-phase diagram of binary systems consisting of particles of diameter σA=σ and σB=γσ (γ≤1) interacting with an inverse p = 12 power law is investigated as a paradigm of a soft potential. In addition to the diameter ratio γ that characterizes hard-sphere models, the phase diagram is a ...

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Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress [Cell Biology]

16-Jun-2015 | Paula Nunes; Isabelle Roth; Paolo Meda; Eric Féraille; Dennis Brown; Udo Hasler, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell ...

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Reverse switching of surface roughness in a self-organized polydomain liquid crystal coating [Applied Physical Sciences]

31-Mar-2015 | Danqing Liu; Ling Liu; Patrick R. Onck; Dirk J. Broer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In this work we propose randomly ordered polydomain nematic liquid crystal polymer networks to reversibly generate notable jagged relief patterns at a polymer coating surface by light illumination. The domain size is controlled by the addition of traces of partly insoluble fluorinated acrylate. ...

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Coding principles of the canonical cortical microcircuit in the avian brain [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Ana Calabrese; Sarah M. N. Woolley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Mammalian neocortex is characterized by a layered architecture and a common or “canonical” microcircuit governing information flow among layers. This microcircuit is thought to underlie the computations required for complex behavior. Despite the absence of a six-layered cortex, birds are capable ...

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Cells as liquid motors: Mechanosensitivity emerges from collective dynamics of actomyosin cortex [Physics]

03-Mar-2015 | Jocelyn Étienne; Jonathan Fouchard; Démosthène Mitrossilis; Nathalie Bufi; Pauline Durand-Smet; Atef Asnacios, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Living cells adapt and respond actively to the mechanical properties of their environment. In addition to biochemical mechanotransduction, evidence exists for a myosin-dependent purely mechanical sensitivity to the stiffness of the surroundings at the scale of the whole cell. Using a minimal ...

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Dendritic cell SIRT1-HIF1{alpha} axis programs the differentiation of CD4+ T cells through IL-12 and TGF-{beta}1 [Immunology and Inflammation]

03-Mar-2015 | Guangwei Liu; Yujing Bi; Lixiang Xue; Yan Zhang; Hui Yang; Xi Chen; Yun Lu; Zhengguo Zhang; Huanrong Liu; Xiao Wang; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into distinct lineages plays critical roles in mediating adaptive immunity or maintaining immune tolerance. In addition to being a first line of defense, the innate immune system also actively instructs adaptive immunity through antigen presentation and ...

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