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877 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Mechanism of pyranopterin ring formation in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis [Chemistry]

19-May-2015 | Bradley M. Hover; Nam K. Tonthat; Maria A. Schumacher; Kenichi Yokoyama, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is essential for all kingdoms of life, plays central roles in various biological processes, and must be biosynthesized de novo. During Moco biosynthesis, the characteristic pyranopterin ring is constructed by a complex rearrangement of guanosine 5′-triphosphate ...

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Hydration water mobility is enhanced around tau amyloid fibers [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

19-May-2015 | Yann Fichou; Giorgio Schirò; François-Xavier Gallat; Cedric Laguri; Martine Moulin; Jérôme Combet; Michaela Zamponi; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The paired helical filaments (PHF) formed by the intrinsically disordered human protein tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. PHF are fibers of amyloid nature that are composed of a rigid core and an unstructured fuzzy coat. The mechanisms of fiber formation, in ...

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Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into functional osteoblasts by defined factors [Medical Sciences]

12-May-2015 | Kenta Yamamoto; Tsunao Kishida; Yoshiki Sato; Keisuke Nishioka; Akika Ejima; Hiroyoshi Fujiwara; Toshikazu Kubo; Tos ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Osteoblasts produce calcified bone matrix and contribute to bone formation and remodeling. In this study, we established a procedure to directly convert human fibroblasts into osteoblasts by transducing some defined factors and culturing in osteogenic medium. Osteoblast-specific transcription ...

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Odorant receptors regulate the final glomerular coalescence of olfactory sensory neuron axons [Neuroscience]

05-May-2015 | Diego J. Rodriguez-Gil; Dianna L. Bartel; Austin W. Jaspers; Arie S. Mobley; Fumiaki Imamura; Charles A. Greer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Odorant receptors (OR) are strongly implicated in coalescence of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons and the formation of olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. However, when ORs are first expressed relative to basal cell division and OSN axon extension is unknown. We developed an in vivo fate-mapping ...

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Large-area formation of self-aligned crystalline domains of organic semiconductors on transistor channels using CONNECT [Applied Physical Sciences]

05-May-2015 | Steve Park; Gaurav Giri; Leo Shaw; Gregory Pitner; Jewook Ha; Ja Hoon Koo; Xiaodan Gu; Joonsuk Park; Tae Hoon Lee; J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The electronic properties of solution-processable small-molecule organic semiconductors (OSCs) have rapidly improved in recent years, rendering them highly promising for various low-cost large-area electronic applications. However, practical applications of organic electronics require patterned ...

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pH-induced molecular shedding drives the formation of amyloid fibril-derived oligomers [Biochemistry]

05-May-2015 | Kevin W. Tipping; Theodoros K. Karamanos; Toral Jakhria; Matthew G. Iadanza; Sophia C. Goodchild; Roman Tuma; Neil A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Amyloid disorders cause debilitating illnesses through the formation of toxic protein aggregates. The mechanisms of amyloid toxicity and the nature of species responsible for mediating cellular dysfunction remain unclear. Here, using β2-microglobulin (β2m) as a model system, we show that the ...

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Head-to-head antisense transcription and R-loop formation promotes transcriptional activation [Genetics]

05-May-2015 | Raquel Boque-Sastre; Marta Soler; Cristina Oliveira-Mateos; Anna Portela; Catia Moutinho; Sergi Sayols; Alberto Vill ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The mechanisms used by antisense transcripts to regulate their corresponding sense mRNAs are not fully understood. Herein, we have addressed this issue for the vimentin (VIM) gene, a member of the intermediate filament family involved in cell and tissue integrity that is deregulated in different ...

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Control of bacterial exoelectrogenesis by c-AMP-GMP [Biochemistry]

28-Apr-2015 | James W. Nelson; Narasimhan Sudarsan; Grace E. Phillips; Shira Stav; Christina E. Lünse; Phillip J. McCown; Ronald R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Major changes in bacterial physiology including biofilm and spore formation involve signaling by the cyclic dinucleotides c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. Recently, another second messenger dinucleotide, c-AMP-GMP, was found to control chemotaxis and colonization by Vibrio cholerae. We have identified a ...

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Zinc as chaperone-mimicking agent for retardation of amyloid {beta} peptide fibril formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

28-Apr-2015 | Axel Abelein; Astrid Gräslund; Jens Danielsson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Metal ions have emerged to play a key role in the aggregation process of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide that is closely related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanistic process of peptide–metal interactions, however, has been challenging to ...

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Structural characterization of toxic oligomers that are kinetically trapped during {alpha}-synuclein fibril formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

21-Apr-2015 | Serene W. Chen; Srdja Drakulic; Emma Deas; Myriam Ouberai; Francesco A. Aprile; Rocío Arranz; Samuel Ness; Cintia Ro ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We describe the isolation and detailed structural characterization of stable toxic oligomers of α-synuclein that have accumulated during the process of amyloid formation. Our approach has allowed us to identify distinct subgroups of oligomers and to probe their molecular architectures by using ...

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