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584 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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A novel mycovirus from Aspergillus fumigatus contains four unique dsRNAs as its genome and is infectious as dsRNA [Microbiology]

21-Jul-2015 | Lakkhana Kanhayuwa; Ioly Kotta-Loizou; Selin Özkan; A. Patrick Gunning; Robert H. A. Coutts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We report the discovery and characterization of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus isolated from the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1 (AfuTmV-1), which reveals several unique features not found previously in positive-strand RNA viruses, ...

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The RNA-binding protein LIN28B regulates developmental timing in the mammalian cochlea [Developmental Biology]

21-Jul-2015 | Erin J. Golden; Ana Benito-Gonzalez; Angelika Doetzlhofer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Proper tissue development requires strict coordination of proliferation, growth, and differentiation. Strict coordination is particularly important for the auditory sensory epithelium, where deviations from the normal spatial and temporal pattern of auditory progenitor cell (prosensory cell) ...

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Sex hormone-dependent tRNA halves enhance cell proliferation in breast and prostate cancers [Biochemistry]

21-Jul-2015 | Shozo Honda; Phillipe Loher; Megumi Shigematsu; Juan P. Palazzo; Ryusuke Suzuki; Issei Imoto; Isidore Rigoutsos; Yoh ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sex hormones and their receptors play critical roles in the development and progression of the breast and prostate cancers. Here we report that a novel type of transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived small RNA, termed Sex HOrmone-dependent TRNA-derived RNAs (SHOT-RNAs), are specifically and abundantly ...

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Long noncoding RNA derived from CD244 signaling epigenetically controls CD8+ T-cell immune responses in tuberculosis infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

21-Jul-2015 | Yang Wang; Huiling Zhong; Xiaodan Xie; Crystal Y. Chen; Dan Huang; Ling Shen; Hui Zhang; Zheng W. Chen; Gucheng Zeng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Molecular mechanisms for T-cell immune responses modulated by T cell-inhibitory molecules during tuberculosis (TB) infection remain unclear. Here, we show that active human TB infection up-regulates CD244 and CD244 signaling-associated molecules in CD8+ T cells and that blockade of CD244 ...

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FUS functions in coupling transcription to splicing by mediating an interaction between RNAP II and U1 snRNP [Biochemistry]

14-Jul-2015 | Yong Yu; Robin Reed, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Pre-mRNA splicing is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We previously showed that U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) associates with RNAP II, and both RNAP II and U1 snRNP are also the most abundant factors associated with the protein fused-in-sarcoma (FUS), which is ...

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Attenuation of dengue (and other RNA viruses) with codon pair recoding can be explained by increased CpG/UpA dinucleotide frequencies [Biological Sciences]

14-Jul-2015 | Peter Simmonds; Fiona Tulloch; David J. Evans; Martin D. Ryan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Shen et al. (1) describe the modification of three regions of the Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) genome to match the codon pair use of insect genes rather than those of mammals. We have previously shown that such recoding also modifies frequencies of CpG and UpA dinucleotides and have proposed...

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Structural basis for the activation of the C. elegans noncanonical cytoplasmic poly(A)-polymerase GLD-2 by GLD-3 [Biochemistry]

14-Jul-2015 | Katharina Nakel; Fabien Bonneau; Christian R. Eckmann; Elena Conti, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The Caenorhabditis elegans germ-line development defective (GLD)-2–GLD-3 complex up-regulates the expression of genes required for meiotic progression. GLD-2–GLD-3 acts by extending the short poly(A) tail of germ-line–specific mRNAs, switching them from a dormant state into a translationally ...

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The Bromodomain protein BRD4 controls HOTAIR, a long noncoding RNA essential for glioblastoma proliferation [Cell Biology]

07-Jul-2015 | Chiara Pastori; Philipp Kapranov; Clara Penas; Veronica Peschansky; Claude-Henry Volmar; Jann N. Sarkaria; Amade Bre ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins have emerged as promising therapeutic targets in glioblastoma and many other cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins reduce expression of several oncogenes required for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) progression. However, ...

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Structural analysis of a class III preQ1 riboswitch reveals an aptamer distant from a ribosome-binding site regulated by fast dynamics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

07-Jul-2015 | Joseph A. Liberman; Krishna C. Suddala; Asaminew Aytenfisu; Dalen Chan; Ivan A. Belashov; Mohammad Salim; David H. M ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

PreQ1-III riboswitches are newly identified RNA elements that control bacterial genes in response to preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine), a precursor to the essential hypermodified tRNA base queuosine. Although numerous riboswitches fold as H-type or HLout-type pseudoknots that integrate ...

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DNA damage during the G0/G1 phase triggers RNA-templated, Cockayne syndrome B-dependent homologous recombination [Cell Biology]

07-Jul-2015 | Leizhen Wei; Satoshi Nakajima; Stefanie Böhm; Kara A. Bernstein; Zhiyuan Shen; Michael Tsang; Arthur S. Levine; Li Lan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Damage repair mechanisms at transcriptionally active sites during the G0/G1 phase are largely unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we introduced genome site-specific oxidative DNA damage and determined the role of transcription in repair factor assembly. We find that KU and NBS1 are recruited ...

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