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458 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

Protoribosome by quantum kernel energy method [Biochemistry]

10-09-2013 | Lulu Huang; Miri Krupkin; Anat Bashan; Ada Yonath; Lou Massa, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Experimental evidence suggests the existence of an RNA molecular prebiotic entity, called by us the “protoribosome,” which may have evolved in the RNA world before evolution of the genetic code and proteins. This vestige of the RNA world, which possesses all of the capabilities required for ...

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Comprehensive experimental fitness landscape and evolutionary network for small RNA [Evolution]

10-09-2013 | José I. Jiménez; Ramon Xulvi-Brunet; Gregory W. Campbell; Rebecca Turk-MacLeod; Irene A. Chen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The origin of life is believed to have progressed through an RNA world, in which RNA acted as both genetic material and functional molecules. The structure of the evolutionary fitness landscape of RNA would determine natural selection for the first functional sequences. Fitness landscapes are the ...

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Differential splicing across immune system lineages [Immunology]

27-08-2013 | Ayla Ergun; Graeme Doran; James C. Costello; Henry H. Paik; James J. Collins; Diane Mathis; Christophe Benoist; ImmG ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Alternative splicing (AS) allows increased diversity and orthogonal regulation of the transcriptional products of mammalian genomes. To assess the distribution and variation of alternative splicing across cell lineages of the immune system, we comprehensively analyzed RNA sequencing and ...

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Tuning a riboswitch response through structural extension of a pseudoknot [Chemistry]

27-08-2013 | Marie F. Soulière; Roger B. Altman; Veronika Schwarz; Andrea Haller; Scott C. Blanchard; Ronald Micura, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Structural and dynamic features of RNA folding landscapes represent critical aspects of RNA function in the cell and are particularly central to riboswitch-mediated control of gene expression. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer imaging, we explore the folding dynamics of the ...

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Nucleic acid determinants for selective deamination of DNA over RNA by activation-induced deaminase [Biochemistry]

27-08-2013 | Christopher S. Nabel; Jae W. Lee; Laura C. Wang; Rahul M. Kohli, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the larger AID/APOBEC family, is the key catalyst in initiating antibody somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. The DNA deamination model accounting for AID’s functional role posits that AID deaminates genomic deoxycytosine bases ...

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Composability of regulatory sequences controlling transcription and translation in Escherichia coli [Systems Biology]

20-08-2013 | Sriram Kosuri; Daniel B. Goodman; Guillaume Cambray; Vivek K. Mutalik; Yuan Gao; Adam P. Arkin; Drew Endy; George M. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The inability to predict heterologous gene expression levels precisely hinders our ability to engineer biological systems. Using well-characterized regulatory elements offers a potential solution only if such elements behave predictably when combined. We synthesized 12,563 combinations of common ...

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Reexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 in type 1 myofibers correlates with altered glucose metabolism in myotonic dystrophy [Medical Sciences]

13-08-2013 | Zhihua Gao; Thomas A. Cooper, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expansion of CTG repeats in the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene. Expression of CUG expansion (CUGexp) RNA produces a toxic gain of function by disrupting the functions of RNA splicing factors, such as MBNL1 and CELF1, leading to splicing changes associated...

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Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium [Microbiology]

13-08-2013 | Federico E. Rey; Mark D. Gonzalez; Jiye Cheng; Meng Wu; Philip P. Ahern; Jeffrey I. Gordon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ∼50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a ...

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Nucleobases bind to and stabilize aggregates of a prebiotic amphiphile, providing a viable mechanism for the emergence of protocells [Biochemistry]

13-08-2013 | Roy A. Black; Matthew C. Blosser; Benjamin L. Stottrup; Ravi Tavakley; David W. Deamer; Sarah L. Keller, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Primordial cells presumably combined RNAs, which functioned as catalysts and carriers of genetic information, with an encapsulating membrane of aggregated amphiphilic molecules. Major questions regarding this hypothesis include how the four bases and the sugar in RNA were selected from a mixture ...

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Mod5 protein binds to tRNA gene complexes and affects local transcriptional silencing [Biochemistry]

13-08-2013 | Matthew Pratt-Hyatt; Dave A. Pai; Rebecca A. Haeusler; Glenn G. Wozniak; Paul D. Good; Erin L. Miller; Ian X. McLeod ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The tRNA gene-mediated (tgm) silencing of RNA polymerase II promoters is dependent on subnuclear clustering of the tRNA genes, but genetic analysis shows that the silencing requires additional mechanisms. We have identified proteins that bind tRNA gene transcription complexes and are required for ...

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