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597 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Ancient hot and cold genes and chemotherapy resistance emergence [Physics]

18-Aug-2015 | Amy Wu; Qiucen Zhang; Guillaume Lambert; Zayar Khin; Robert A. Gatenby; Hyunsung John Kim; Nader Pourmand; Kimberly ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We use a microfabricated ecology with a doxorubicin gradient and population fragmentation to produce a strong Darwinian selective pressure that drives forward the rapid emergence of doxorubicin resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells. RNA sequencing of the resistant cells was used to ...

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Brd4 bridges the transcriptional regulators, Aire and P-TEFb, to promote elongation of peripheral-tissue antigen transcripts in thymic stromal cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

11-Aug-2015 | Hideyuki Yoshida; Kushagra Bansal; Uwe Schaefer; Trevor Chapman; Inmaculada Rioja; Irina Proekt; Mark S. Anderson; R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Aire controls immunologic tolerance by inducing a battery of thymic transcripts encoding proteins characteristic of peripheral tissues. Its unusually broad effect is achieved by releasing RNA polymerase II paused just downstream of transcriptional start sites. We explored Aire’s collaboration ...

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The isolation of an RNA aptamer targeting to p53 protein with single amino acid mutation [Medical Sciences]

11-Aug-2015 | Liang Chen; Farooq Rashid; Abdullah Shah; Hassaan M. Awan; Mingming Wu; An Liu; Jun Wang; Tao Zhu; Zhaofeng Luo; Ge Shan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

p53, known as a tumor suppressor, is a DNA binding protein that regulates cell cycle, activates DNA repair proteins, and triggers apoptosis in multicellular animals. More than 50% of human cancers contain a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene, and p53R175 is one of the hot spots of p53...

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Two transcription pause elements underlie a {sigma}70-dependent pause cycle [Biochemistry]

11-Aug-2015 | Eric J. Strobel; Jeffrey W. Roberts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The movement of RNA polymerase (RNAP) during transcription elongation is modulated by DNA-encoded elements that cause the elongation complex to pause. One of the best-characterized pause sequences is a binding site for the σ70 initiation factor that induces pausing at a site near lambdoid phage ...

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Live-cell superresolution microscopy reveals the organization of RNA polymerase in the bacterial nucleoid [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

11-Aug-2015 | Mathew Stracy; Christian Lesterlin; Federico Garza de Leon; Stephan Uphoff; Pawel Zawadzki; Achillefs N. Kapanidis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Despite the fundamental importance of transcription, a comprehensive analysis of RNA polymerase (RNAP) behavior and its role in the nucleoid organization in vivo is lacking. Here, we used superresolution microscopy to study the localization and dynamics of the transcription machinery and DNA in ...

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RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

04-Aug-2015 | Mihwa Seo; Keunhee Seo; Wooseon Hwang; Hee Jung Koo; Jeong-Hoon Hahm; Jae-Seong Yang; Seong Kyu Han; Daehee Hwang; S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance ...

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Accuracy of initial codon selection by aminoacyl-tRNAs on the mRNA-programmed bacterial ribosome [Biochemistry]

04-Aug-2015 | Jingji Zhang; Ka-Weng Ieong; Magnus Johansson; Måns Ehrenberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We used a cell-free system with pure Escherichia coli components to study initial codon selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP on messenger RNA-programmed ribosomes. We took advantage of the universal rate-accuracy trade-off for all enzymatic selections ...

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CBR antimicrobials inhibit RNA polymerase via at least two bridge-helix cap-mediated effects on nucleotide addition [Biochemistry]

04-Aug-2015 | Brian Bae; Dhananjaya Nayak; Ananya Ray; Arkady Mustaev; Robert Landick; Seth A. Darst, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

RNA polymerase inhibitors like the CBR class that target the enzyme’s complex catalytic center are attractive leads for new antimicrobials. Catalysis by RNA polymerase involves multiple rearrangements of bridge helix, trigger loop, and active-center side chains that isomerize the triphosphate of ...

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The Xist RNA-PRC2 complex at 20-nm resolution reveals a low Xist stoichiometry and suggests a hit-and-run mechanism in mouse cells [Cell Biology]

04-Aug-2015 | Hongjae Sunwoo; John Y. Wu; Jeannie T. Lee, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by the long noncoding RNA Xist, which coats the inactive X (Xi) and targets Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in cis. Epigenomic analyses have provided significant insight into Xist binding patterns and chromatin organization of the Xi. However, ...

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Insights into G-quadruplex specific recognition by the DEAH-box helicase RHAU: Solution structure of a peptide-quadruplex complex [Chemistry]

04-Aug-2015 | Brahim Heddi; Vee Vee Cheong; Herry Martadinata; Anh Tuân Phan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Four-stranded nucleic acid structures called G-quadruplexes have been associated with important cellular processes, which should require G-quadruplex–protein interaction. However, the structural basis for specific G-quadruplex recognition by proteins has not been understood. The DEAH ...

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