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539 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Boosting CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex editing capability with the endogenous tRNA-processing system [Plant Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Kabin Xie; Bastian Minkenberg; Yinong Yang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system is being harnessed as a powerful tool for genome engineering in basic research, molecular therapy, and crop improvement. This system uses a small guide RNA (gRNA) to direct ...

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The RNA binding protein FXR1 is a new driver in the 3q26-29 amplicon and predicts poor prognosis in human cancers [Medical Sciences]

17-Mar-2015 | Jun Qian; Mohamed Hassanein; Megan D. Hoeksema; Bradford K. Harris; Yong Zou; Heidi Chen; Pengcheng Lu; Rosana Eisen ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Aberrant expression of RNA-binding proteins has profound implications for cellular physiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancer. We previously identified the Fragile X-Related 1 gene (FXR1) as one amplified candidate driver gene at 3q26-29 in lung squamous cell carcinoma ...

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Analysis of 13 cell types reveals evidence for the expression of numerous novel primate- and tissue-specific microRNAs [Genetics]

10-Mar-2015 | Eric Londin; Phillipe Loher; Aristeidis G. Telonis; Kevin Quann; Peter Clark; Yi Jing; Eleftheria Hatzimichael; Yohe ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Two decades after the discovery of the first animal microRNA (miRNA), the number of miRNAs in animal genomes remains a vexing question. Here, we report findings from analyzing 1,323 short RNA sequencing samples (RNA-seq) from 13 different human tissue types. Using stringent thresholding criteria, ...

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Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex [Biochemistry]

10-Mar-2015 | Addison V. Wright; Samuel H. Sternberg; David W. Taylor; Brett T. Staahl; Jorge A. Bardales; Jack E. Kornfeld; Jenni ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or ...

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Spatiotemporally dynamic, cell-type-dependent premeiotic and meiotic phasiRNAs in maize anthers [Plant Biology]

10-Mar-2015 | Jixian Zhai; Han Zhang; Siwaret Arikit; Kun Huang; Guo-Ling Nan; Virginia Walbot; Blake C. Meyers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Maize anthers, the male reproductive floral organs, express two classes of phased small-interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs). PhasiRNA precursors are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and map to low-copy, intergenic regions similar to PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in mammalian testis. From 10 sequential ...

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Histone titration against the genome sets the DNA-to-cytoplasm threshold for the Xenopus midblastula transition [Developmental Biology]

10-Mar-2015 | Amanda A. Amodeo; David Jukam; Aaron F. Straight; Jan M. Skotheim, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

During early development, animal embryos depend on maternally deposited RNA until zygotic genes become transcriptionally active. Before this maternal-to-zygotic transition, many species execute rapid and synchronous cell divisions without growth phases or cell cycle checkpoints. The coordinated ...

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Rectifying RNA splicing errors in hereditary neurodegenerative disease [Cell Biology]

03-Mar-2015 | Maurice S. Swanson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The normal pattern of human gene expression requires precise coordination between the transcriptional and RNA processing machineries (1). During and following transcription, nascent RNAs may be modified by 5′-end capping, splicing, and 3′-end cleavage/polyadenylation to generate the vast ...

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In-cell SHAPE reveals that free 30S ribosome subunits are in the inactive state [Biochemistry]

24-Feb-2015 | Jennifer L. McGinnis; Qi Liu; Christopher A. Lavender; Aishwarya Devaraj; Sean P. McClory; Kurt Fredrick; Kevin M. Weeks, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

It was shown decades ago that purified 30S ribosome subunits readily interconvert between “active” and “inactive” conformations in a switch that involves changes in the functionally important neck and decoding regions. However, the physiological significance of this conformational change had ...

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Revealing the density of encoded functions in a viral RNA [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Nikesh Patel; Eric C. Dykeman; Robert H. A. Coutts; George P. Lomonossoff; David J. Rowlands; Simon E. V. Phillips; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We present direct experimental evidence that assembly of a single-stranded RNA virus occurs via a packaging signal-mediated mechanism. We show that the sequences of coat protein recognition motifs within multiple, dispersed, putative RNA packaging signals, as well as their relative spacing within ...

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Structural basis for transcription reactivation by RapA [Biochemistry]

17-Feb-2015 | Bin Liu; Yuhong Zuo; Thomas A. Steitz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

RNA polymerase (RNAP) loses activity during transcription as it stalls at various inactive states due to erratic translocation. Reactivation of these stalled RNAPs is essential for efficient RNA synthesis. Here we report a 4.7-Å resolution crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNAP core ...

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