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499 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Molecular insights into DNA interference by CRISPR-associated nuclease-helicase Cas3 [Biochemistry]

18-11-2014 | Bei Gong; Minsang Shin; Jiali Sun; Che-Hun Jung; Edward L. Bolt; John van der Oost; Jeong-Sun Kim, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Mobile genetic elements in bacteria are neutralized by a system based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems use a “Cascade” ribonucleoprotein complex to guide RNA specifically to complementary ...

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The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes [Plant Biology]

11-11-2014 | Zsuzsanna Mérai; Nina Chumak; Marcelina García-Aguilar; Tzung-Fu Hsieh; Toshiro Nishimura; Vera K. Schoft; János Bin ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases ...

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Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing [Plant Biology]

11-11-2014 | Runlai Hang; Chunyan Liu; Ayaz Ahmad; Yong Zhang; Falong Lu; Xiaofeng Cao, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two ...

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Functional conservation despite structural divergence in ligand-responsive RNA switches [Biochemistry]

11-11-2014 | Mark A. Boerneke; Sergey M. Dibrov; Jing Gu; David L. Wyles; Thomas Hermann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) initiates protein synthesis in RNA viruses, including the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We have discovered ligand-responsive conformational switches in viral IRES elements. Modular RNA motifs of greatly distinct sequence and local secondary structure have been ...

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A circadian gene expression atlas in mammals: Implications for biology and medicine [Systems Biology]

11-11-2014 | Ray Zhang; Nicholas F. Lahens; Heather I. Ballance; Michael E. Hughes; John B. Hogenesch, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

To characterize the role of the circadian clock in mouse physiology and behavior, we used RNA-seq and DNA arrays to quantify the transcriptomes of 12 mouse organs over time. We found 43% of all protein coding genes showed circadian rhythms in transcription somewhere in the body, largely in an ...

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DICER1/Alu RNA dysmetabolism induces Caspase-8-mediated cell death in age-related macular degeneration [Medical Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Younghee Kim; Valeria Tarallo; Nagaraj Kerur; Tetsuhiro Yasuma; Bradley D. Gelfand; Ana Bastos-Carvalho; Yoshio Hira ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Geographic atrophy, an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) characterized by death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), causes untreatable blindness in millions worldwide. The RPE of human eyes with geographic atrophy accumulates toxic Alu RNA in response to a deficit in ...

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Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells [Biochemistry]

04-11-2014 | Mariano Alló; Eneritz Agirre; Sergey Bessonov; Paola Bertucci; Luciana Gómez Acuña; Valeria Buggiano; Nicolás Bellor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin ...

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Activity-dependent FUS dysregulation disrupts synaptic homeostasis [Neuroscience]

04-11-2014 | Chantelle F. Sephton; Amy A. Tang; Ashwinikumar Kulkarni; James West; Mieu Brooks; Jeremy J. Stubblefield; Yun Liu; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The RNA-binding protein fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) has been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), two neurodegenerative disorders that share similar clinical and pathological features. Both missense mutations and overexpression of wild-type ...

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Neuroprotection and repair of 3'-blocking DNA ends by glaikit (gkt) encoding Drosophila tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) [Neuroscience]

04-11-2014 | DongYu Guo; Thomas S. Dexheimer; Yves Pommier; Howard A. Nash, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) is a phylogenetically conserved enzyme critical for the removal of blocking lesions at the 3′ ends of DNA or RNA. This study analyzes the Drosophila TDP1 gene ortholog glaikit (gkt) and its possible role(s) in the repair of endogenous DNA lesions and ...

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Double-stranded RNA under force and torque: Similarities to and striking differences from double-stranded DNA [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

28-10-2014 | Jan Lipfert; Gary M. Skinner; Johannes M. Keegstra; Toivo Hensgens; Tessa Jager; David Dulin; Mariana Köber; Zhongbo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

RNA plays myriad roles in the transmission and regulation of genetic information that are fundamentally constrained by its mechanical properties, including the elasticity and conformational transitions of the double-stranded (dsRNA) form. Although double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) mechanics have been ...

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