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302 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

25-11-2014 | Aaron Donohoe; Kyle C. Armour; Angeline G. Pendergrass; David S. Battisti, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an ...

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Human population reduction is not a quick fix for environmental problems [Population Biology]

18-11-2014 | Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Barry W. Brook, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The inexorable demographic momentum of the global human population is rapidly eroding Earth’s life-support system. There are consequently more frequent calls to address environmental problems by advocating further reductions in human fertility. To examine how quickly this could lead to a smaller ...

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Skeletal muscle-induced hypoglycemia risk, not life history energy trade-off, links high child brain glucose use to slow body growth [Social Sciences]

18-11-2014 | John R. Skoyles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Kuzawa et al. (1) find an “inverse relationship between the brain’s demand for glucose and body-weight growth rate” that supports “the hypothesis that human brain development is sufficiently costly to require a compensatory reduction in expenditure on body growth”. However, energy expenditure on ...

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Timing and heterogeneity of mutations associated with drug resistance in metastatic cancers [Applied Mathematics]

11-11-2014 | Ivana Bozic; Martin A. Nowak, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Targeted therapies provide an exciting new approach to combat human cancer. The immediate effect is a dramatic reduction in disease burden, but in most cases, the tumor returns as a consequence of resistance. Various mechanisms for the evolution of resistance have been implicated, including ...

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Vegetation dynamics and rainfall sensitivity of the Amazon [Environmental Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Thomas Hilker; Alexei I. Lyapustin; Compton J. Tucker; Forrest G. Hall; Ranga B. Myneni; Yujie Wang; Jian Bi; Yhasmi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate ...

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Beclin-1 deficiency in the murine ovary results in the reduction of progesterone production to promote preterm labor [Developmental Biology]

07-10-2014 | Thomas R. Gawriluk; CheMyong Ko; Xiaoman Hong; Lane K. Christenson; Edmund B. Rucker III, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Autophagy is an important cellular process that serves as a companion pathway to the ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade long-lived proteins and organelles to maintain cell homeostasis. Although initially characterized in yeast, autophagy is being realized as an important regulator of ...

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Iron oxides stimulate sulfate-driven anaerobic methane oxidation in seeps [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

07-10-2014 | Orit Sivan; Gilad Antler; Alexandra V. Turchyn; Jeffrey J. Marlow; Victoria J. Orphan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Seep sediments are dominated by intensive microbial sulfate reduction coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Through geochemical measurements of incubation experiments with methane seep sediments collected from Hydrate Ridge, we provide insight into the role of iron oxides in ...

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Predicting the outcomes of treatment to eradicate the latent reservoir for HIV-1 [Applied Mathematics]

16-09-2014 | Alison L. Hill; Daniel I. S. Rosenbloom; Feng Fu; Martin A. Nowak; Robert F. Siliciano, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Massive research efforts are now underway to develop a cure for HIV infection, allowing patients to discontinue lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). New latency-reversing agents (LRAs) may be able to purge the persistent reservoir of latent virus in resting memory CD4+ T cells, but ...

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The class III ribonucleotide reductase from Neisseria bacilliformis can utilize thioredoxin as a reductant [Biochemistry]

09-09-2014 | Yifeng Wei; Michael A. Funk; Leonardo A. Rosado; Jiyeon Baek; Catherine L. Drennan; JoAnne Stubbe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. Here we report the cloning and heterologous expression of the Neisseria bacilliformis class III RNR and show that it can ...

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Characterizing the proton loading site in cytochrome c oxidase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

26-08-2014 | Jianxun Lu; M. R. Gunner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) uses the energy released by reduction of O2 to H2O to drive eight charges from the high pH to low pH side of the membrane, increasing the electrochemical gradient. Four electrons and protons are used for chemistry, while four more protons are pumped. Proton pumping ...

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