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339 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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A single protein redox ruler [Chemistry]

12-Jan-2016 | Rajneesh K. Bains; Jeffrey J. Warren, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Redox reactions are the heart of function in biological systems. Using a deceptively simple toolbox, consisting largely of first row transition metals and the 20 canonical amino acids, nature has evolved proteins that contain cofactors with reduction potentials (E°′) between +1 V and −1 V. ...

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Design of a single protein that spans the entire 2-V range of physiological redox potentials [Chemistry]

12-Jan-2016 | Parisa Hosseinzadeh; Nicholas M. Marshall; Kelly N. Chacón; Yang Yu; Mark J. Nilges; Siu Yee New; Stoyan A. Tashkov; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The reduction potential (E°′) is a critical parameter in determining the efficiency of most biological and chemical reactions. Biology employs three classes of metalloproteins to cover the majority of the 2-V range of physiological E°′s. An ultimate test of our understanding of E°′ is to find out ...

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Q&As with Sharon Hammes-Schiffer [QnAs]

05-Jan-2016 | Farooq Ahmed, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

From photosynthesis to cellular respiration, proton-coupled electron transfer lies at the heart of many reactions that build and sustain our environment. The process, which involves the movement of charge to or from a particular molecule or substrate, occurs in reduction-oxidation reactions. As ...

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Polymer-supported CuPd nanoalloy as a synergistic catalyst for electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to methane [Chemistry]

29-Dec-2015 | Sheng Zhang; Peng Kang; Mohammed Bakir; Alexander M. Lapides; Christopher J. Dares; Thomas J. Meyer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Developing sustainable energy strategies based on CO2 reduction is an increasingly important issue given the world’s continued reliance on hydrocarbon fuels and the rise in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. An important option is electrochemical or photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction to carbon ...

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Discontinuity of cortical gradients reflects sensory impairment [Neuroscience]

29-Dec-2015 | Noam Saadon-Grosman; Zohar Tal; Eyal Itshayek; Amir Amedi; Shahar Arzy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Topographic maps and their continuity constitute a fundamental principle of brain organization. In the somatosensory system, whole-body sensory impairment may be reflected either in cortical signal reduction or disorganization of the somatotopic map, such as disturbed continuity. Here we ...

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Live births after simultaneous avoidance of monogenic diseases and chromosome abnormality by next-generation sequencing with linkage analyses [Genetics]

29-Dec-2015 | Liying Yan; Lei Huang; Liya Xu; Jin Huang; Fei Ma; Xiaohui Zhu; Yaqiong Tang; Mingshan Liu; Ying Lian; Ping Liu; Ron ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In vitro fertilization (IVF), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) help patients to select embryos free of monogenic diseases and aneuploidy (chromosome abnormality). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, while experiencing a rapid cost ...

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Angptl4 links {alpha}-cell proliferation following glucagon receptor inhibition with adipose tissue triglyceride metabolism [Physiology]

15-Dec-2015 | Danny Ben-Zvi; Ornella Barrandon; Stephanie Hadley; Barak Blum; Quinn P. Peterson; Douglas A. Melton, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a reduction in insulin function and an increase in glucagon activity that together result in hyperglycemia. Glucagon receptor antagonists have been developed as drugs for diabetes; however, they often increase glucagon plasma levels and induce the proliferation ...

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Central role for ferritin in the day/night regulation of iron homeostasis in marine phytoplankton [Environmental Sciences]

24-Nov-2015 | Hugo Botebol; Emmanuel Lesuisse; Robert Šuták; Christophe Six; Jean-Claude Lozano; Philippe Schatt; Valérie Vergé; A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In large regions of the open ocean, iron is a limiting resource for phytoplankton. The reduction of iron quota and the recycling of internal iron pools are among the diverse strategies that phytoplankton have evolved to allow them to grow under chronically low ambient iron levels. Phytoplankton ...

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Hormone-regulated defense and stress response networks contribute to heterosis in Arabidopsis F1 hybrids [Plant Biology]

17-Nov-2015 | Michael Groszmann; Rebeca Gonzalez-Bayon; Rebecca L. Lyons; Ian K. Greaves; Kemal Kazan; W. James Peacock; Elizabeth ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Plant hybrids are extensively used in agriculture to deliver increases in yields, yet the molecular basis of their superior performance (heterosis) is not well understood. Our transcriptome analysis of a number of Arabidopsis F1 hybrids identified changes to defense and stress response gene ...

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Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels [Engineering]

10-Nov-2015 | Meenesh R. Singh; Ezra L. Clark; Alexis T. Bell, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun ...

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