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551 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Structures of E. coli {sigma}S-transcription initiation complexes provide new insights into polymerase mechanism [Biochemistry]

12-Apr-2016 | Bin Liu; Yuhong Zuo; Thomas A. Steitz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

In bacteria, multiple σ factors compete to associate with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme to form a holoenzyme that is required for promoter recognition. During transcription initiation RNAP remains associated with the upstream promoter DNA via sequence-specific interactions between the σ ...

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Comprehensive mutagenesis of the fimS promoter regulatory switch reveals novel regulation of type 1 pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli [Microbiology]

12-Apr-2016 | Huibin Zhang; Teodorus T. Susanto; Yue Wan; Swaine L. Chen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Type 1 pili (T1P) are major virulence factors for uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which cause both acute and recurrent urinary tract infections. T1P expression therefore is of direct relevance for disease. T1P are phase variable (both piliated and nonpiliated bacteria exist in a clonal ...

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Horizontally acquired genes in early-diverging pathogenic fungi enable the use of host nucleosides and nucleotides [Evolution]

12-Apr-2016 | William G. Alexander; Jennifer H. Wisecaver; Antonis Rokas; Chris Todd Hittinger, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among bacteria, archaea, and viruses is widespread, but the extent of transfers from these lineages into eukaryotic organisms is contentious. Here we systematically identify hundreds of genes that were likely acquired horizontally from a variety of sources by the ...

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Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase-thioesterase enzyme pair [Biochemistry]

05-Apr-2016 | Abrahim El Gamal; Vinayak Agarwal; Stefan Diethelm; Imran Rahman; Michelle A. Schorn; Jennifer M. Sneed; Gordon V. L ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Halogenated pyrroles (halopyrroles) are common chemical moieties found in bioactive bacterial natural products. The halopyrrole moieties of mono- and dihalopyrrole-containing compounds arise from a conserved mechanism in which a proline-derived pyrrolyl group bound to a carrier protein is first ...

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Rating antifreeze proteins: Not a breeze [Chemistry]

05-Apr-2016 | Amir Haji-Akbari, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are an interesting class of biomolecules that hinder macroscopic freezing by binding to small ice crystals and blocking their further growth. They were first discovered in the 1960s in arctic fish (1) and have since been observed in a wide range of other organisms, ...

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Bacteroides fragilis type VI secretion systems use novel effector and immunity proteins to antagonize human gut Bacteroidales species [Microbiology]

29-Mar-2016 | Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis; Naama Geva-Zatorsky; Laurie E. Comstock, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are multiprotein complexes best studied in Gram-negative pathogens where they have been shown to inhibit or kill prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and are often important for virulence. We recently showed that T6SS loci are also widespread in symbiotic human gut ...

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Molecular basis for inhibition of AcrB multidrug efflux pump by novel and powerful pyranopyridine derivatives [Biochemistry]

29-Mar-2016 | Hanno Sjuts; Attilio V. Vargiu; Steven M. Kwasny; Son T. Nguyen; Hong-Suk Kim; Xiaoyuan Ding; Alina R. Ornik; Paolo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is the archetype of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) exporters from Gram-negative bacteria. Overexpression of RND-type efflux pumps is a major factor in multidrug resistance (MDR), which makes these pumps important antibacterial drug ...

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ppGpp negatively impacts ribosome assembly affecting growth and antimicrobial tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria [Microbiology]

22-Mar-2016 | Rebecca M. Corrigan; Lauren E. Bellows; Alison Wood; Angelika Gründling, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The stringent response is a survival mechanism used by bacteria to deal with stress. It is coordinated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], which interact with target proteins to promote bacterial survival. Although this response has been well characterized ...

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Oscillation helps to get division right [Cell Biology]

15-Mar-2016 | David J. Sherratt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

A conserved feature of proliferating cells is their need to divide at the appropriate time and place using precise positioning mechanisms to ensure that each daughter cell has the same genetic complement as the parent, as well as the correct shape and size. In rod-shaped bacteria, division ...

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Crosstalk between the lipopolysaccharide and phospholipid pathways during outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli [Systems Biology]

15-Mar-2016 | Akintunde Emiola; Steven S. Andrews; Carolin Heller; John George, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is composed of phospholipids in the inner leaflet and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the outer leaflet. LPS is an endotoxin that elicits a strong immune response from humans, and its biosynthesis is in part regulated via degradation of LpxC (EC ...

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