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489 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Acetogenesis from H2 plus CO2 and nitrogen fixation by an endosymbiotic spirochete of a termite-gut cellulolytic protist [Colloquium Paper]

18-Aug-2015 | Moriya Ohkuma; Satoko Noda; Satoshi Hattori; Toshiya Iida; Masahiro Yuki; David Starns; Jun-ichi Inoue; Alistair C. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Symbiotic associations of cellulolytic eukaryotic protists and diverse bacteria are common in the gut microbial communities of termites. Besides cellulose degradation by the gut protists, reductive acetogenesis from H2 plus CO2 and nitrogen fixation by gut bacteria play crucial roles in the host ...

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Linking fecal bacteria in rivers to landscape, geochemical, and hydrologic factors and sources at the basin scale [Environmental Sciences]

18-Aug-2015 | Marc P. Verhougstraete; Sherry L. Martin; Anthony D. Kendall; David W. Hyndman; Joan B. Rose, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Linking fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in large mixed-use watersheds back to diffuse human sources, such as septic systems, has met limited success. In this study, 64 rivers that drain 84% of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula were sampled under baseflow conditions for Escherichia coli, ...

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Genome expansion via lineage splitting and genome reduction in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia [Colloquium Paper]

18-Aug-2015 | Matthew A. Campbell; James T. Van Leuven; Russell C. Meister; Kaitlin M. Carey; Chris Simon; John P. McCutcheon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Comparative genomics from mitochondria, plastids, and mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria has shown that the stable establishment of a bacterium in a host cell results in genome reduction. Although many highly reduced genomes from endosymbiotic bacteria are stable in gene content and genome ...

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Rhythmicity of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by gender and the host circadian clock [Microbiology]

18-Aug-2015 | Xue Liang; Frederic D. Bushman; Garret A. FitzGerald, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In mammals, multiple physiological, metabolic, and behavioral processes are subject to circadian rhythms, adapting to changing light in the environment. Here we analyzed circadian rhythms in the fecal microbiota of mice using deep sequencing, and found that the absolute amount of fecal bacteria ...

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Phytoplankton-bacterial interactions mediate micronutrient colimitation at the coastal Antarctic sea ice edge [Environmental Sciences]

11-Aug-2015 | Erin M. Bertrand; John P. McCrow; Ahmed Moustafa; Hong Zheng; Jeffrey B. McQuaid; Tom O. Delmont; Anton F. Post; Rac ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Southern Ocean primary productivity plays a key role in global ocean biogeochemistry and climate. At the Southern Ocean sea ice edge in coastal McMurdo Sound, we observed simultaneous cobalamin and iron limitation of surface water phytoplankton communities in late Austral summer. Cobalamin is ...

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Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1 [Microbiology]

04-Aug-2015 | Ann-Katrin Felux; Dieter Spiteller; Janosch Klebensberger; David Schleheck, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sulfoquinovose (SQ; 6-deoxy-6-sulfoglucose) is the polar head group of the plant sulfolipid SQ-diacylglycerol, and SQ comprises a major proportion of the organosulfur in nature, where it is degraded by bacteria. A first degradation pathway for SQ has been demonstrated recently, a ...

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Structural basis for methyl-donor-dependent and sequence-specific binding to tRNA substrates by knotted methyltransferase TrmD [Biochemistry]

04-Aug-2015 | Takuhiro Ito; Isao Masuda; Ken-ichi Yoshida; Sakurako Goto-Ito; Shun-ichi Sekine; Se Won Suh; Ya-Ming Hou; Shigeyuki ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The deep trefoil knot architecture is unique to the SpoU and tRNA methyltransferase D (TrmD) (SPOUT) family of methyltransferases (MTases) in all three domains of life. In bacteria, TrmD catalyzes the N1-methylguanosine (m1G) modification at position 37 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) with the 36GG37 ...

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A multidrug resistance plasmid contains the molecular switch for type VI secretion in Acinetobacter baumannii [Microbiology]

28-Jul-2015 | Brent S. Weber; Pek Man Ly; Joshua N. Irwin; Stefan Pukatzki; Mario F. Feldman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Infections with Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the most troublesome and least studied multidrug-resistant superbugs, are increasing at alarming rates. A. baumannii encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS), an antibacterial apparatus of Gram-negative bacteria used to kill competitors. Expression ...

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How clonal are Neisseria species? The epidemic clonality model revisited [Colloquium Paper]

21-Jul-2015 | Michel Tibayrenc; Francisco J. Ayala, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The three species Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Neisseria lactamica are often regarded as highly recombining bacteria. N. meningitidis has been considered a paradigmatic case of the “semiclonal model” or of “epidemic clonality,” demonstrating occasional bouts of clonal ...

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Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

21-Jul-2015 | Sara Capponi; Matthias Heyden; Ana-Nicoleta Bondar; Douglas J. Tobias; Stephen H. White, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the ...

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