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481 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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How clonal are Neisseria species? The epidemic clonality model revisited [Colloquium Paper]

21-Jul-2015 | Michel Tibayrenc; Francisco J. Ayala, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The three species Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Neisseria lactamica are often regarded as highly recombining bacteria. N. meningitidis has been considered a paradigmatic case of the “semiclonal model” or of “epidemic clonality,” demonstrating occasional bouts of clonal ...

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Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

21-Jul-2015 | Sara Capponi; Matthias Heyden; Ana-Nicoleta Bondar; Douglas J. Tobias; Stephen H. White, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the ...

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In the light of evolution IX: Clonal reproduction: Alternatives to sex [Introductions]

21-Jul-2015 | Michel Tibayrenc; John C. Avise; Francisco J. Ayala, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Evolutionary studies of clonal organisms have advanced considerably in recent years, but are still fledgling. Although recent textbooks on evolution or genetics might give the impression that nonsexual reproduction is an anomaly in the living world, clonality is the rule rather than the exception ...

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Identification of divergent type VI secretion effectors using a conserved chaperone domain [Microbiology]

21-Jul-2015 | Xiaoye Liang; Richard Moore; Mike Wilton; Megan J. Q. Wong; Linh Lam; Tao G. Dong, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon used by many bacteria to kill eukaryotic predators or prokaryotic competitors. Killing by the T6SS results from repetitive delivery of toxic effectors. Despite their importance in dictating bacterial fitness, systematic prediction of T6SS ...

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QnAs with James J. Collins [QnAs]

07-Jul-2015 | Tinsley H. Davis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

When it comes to administering antibiotics, two are not necessarily better than one. Instead of working in synergy, antibiotics intended to slow bacterial growth can undermine the effects of antibiotics intended to kill bacteria. In his Inaugural Article, James Collins, elected to the National ...

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Structural and functional insights into Escherichia coli {alpha}2-macroglobulin endopeptidase snap-trap inhibition [Biochemistry]

07-Jul-2015 | Irene Garcia-Ferrer; Pedro Arêde; Josué Gómez-Blanco; Daniel Luque; Stephane Duquerroy; José R. Castón; Theodoros Go ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The survival of commensal bacteria requires them to evade host peptidases. Gram-negative bacteria from the human gut microbiome encode a relative of the human endopeptidase inhibitor, α2-macroglobulin (α2M). Escherichia coli α2M (ECAM) is a ∼180-kDa multidomain membrane-anchored pan-peptidase ...

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A self-lysis pathway that enhances the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium [Microbiology]

07-Jul-2015 | Kirsty A. McFarland; Emily L. Dolben; Michele LeRoux; Tracy K. Kambara; Kathryn M. Ramsey; Robin L. Kirkpatrick; Jos ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In mammalian cells, programmed cell death (PCD) plays important roles in development, in the removal of damaged cells, and in fighting bacterial infections. Although widespread among multicellular organisms, there are relatively few documented instances of PCD in bacteria. Here we describe a ...

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Cytochrome cbb3 of Thioalkalivibrio is a Na+-pumping cytochrome oxidase [Biochemistry]

23-Jun-2015 | Maria S. Muntyan; Dmitry A. Cherepanov; Anssi M. Malinen; Dmitry A. Bloch; Dimitry Y. Sorokin; Inna I. Severina; Tat ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cytochrome c oxidases (Coxs) are the basic energy transducers in the respiratory chain of the majority of aerobic organisms. Coxs studied to date are redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes belonging to one of three subfamilies: A-, B-, and C-type oxidases. The C-type oxidases (cbb3 cytochromes), ...

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A tortoise-hare pattern seen in adapting structured and unstructured populations suggests a rugged fitness landscape in bacteria [Evolution]

16-Jun-2015 | Joshua R. Nahum; Peter Godfrey-Smith; Brittany N. Harding; Joseph H. Marcus; Jared Carlson-Stevermer; Benjamin Kerr, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In the context of Wright’s adaptive landscape, genetic epistasis can yield a multipeaked or “rugged” topography. In an unstructured population, a lineage with selective access to multiple peaks is expected to fix rapidly on one, which may not be the highest peak. In a spatially structured ...

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Temperate and lytic bacteriophages programmed to sensitize and kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria [Microbiology]

09-Jun-2015 | Ido Yosef; Miriam Manor; Ruth Kiro; Udi Qimron, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The increasing threat of pathogen resistance to antibiotics requires the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. Here we present a proof of concept for a genetic strategy that aims to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We use temperate ...

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