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474 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Cytochrome cbb3 of Thioalkalivibrio is a Na+-pumping cytochrome oxidase [Biochemistry]

23-Jun-2015 | Maria S. Muntyan; Dmitry A. Cherepanov; Anssi M. Malinen; Dmitry A. Bloch; Dimitry Y. Sorokin; Inna I. Severina; Tat ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cytochrome c oxidases (Coxs) are the basic energy transducers in the respiratory chain of the majority of aerobic organisms. Coxs studied to date are redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes belonging to one of three subfamilies: A-, B-, and C-type oxidases. The C-type oxidases (cbb3 cytochromes), ...

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A tortoise-hare pattern seen in adapting structured and unstructured populations suggests a rugged fitness landscape in bacteria [Evolution]

16-Jun-2015 | Joshua R. Nahum; Peter Godfrey-Smith; Brittany N. Harding; Joseph H. Marcus; Jared Carlson-Stevermer; Benjamin Kerr, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In the context of Wright’s adaptive landscape, genetic epistasis can yield a multipeaked or “rugged” topography. In an unstructured population, a lineage with selective access to multiple peaks is expected to fix rapidly on one, which may not be the highest peak. In a spatially structured ...

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Temperate and lytic bacteriophages programmed to sensitize and kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria [Microbiology]

09-Jun-2015 | Ido Yosef; Miriam Manor; Ruth Kiro; Udi Qimron, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The increasing threat of pathogen resistance to antibiotics requires the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. Here we present a proof of concept for a genetic strategy that aims to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We use temperate ...

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Structure of a bacterial toxin-activating acyltransferase [Microbiology]

09-Jun-2015 | Nicholas P. Greene; Allister Crow; Colin Hughes; Vassilis Koronakis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Secreted pore-forming toxins of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) insert into host–cell membranes to subvert signal transduction and induce apoptosis and cell lysis. Unusually, these toxins are synthesized in an inactive form that requires ...

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Outer-membrane translocation of bulky small molecules by passive diffusion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Jun-2015 | Bert van den Berg; Satya Prathyusha Bhamidimarri; Jigneshkumar Dahyabhai Prajapati; Ulrich Kleinekathöfer; Mathias W ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria forms a protective layer around the cell that serves as a permeability barrier to prevent unrestricted access of noxious substances. The permeability barrier of the OM results partly from the limited pore diameters of OM diffusion channels. As a ...

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Human caspase-4 mediates noncanonical inflammasome activation against gram-negative bacterial pathogens [Immunology and Inflammation]

26-May-2015 | Cierra N. Casson; Janet Yu; Valeria M. Reyes; Frances O. Taschuk; Anjana Yadav; Alan M. Copenhaver; Hieu T. Nguyen; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Inflammasomes are critical for host defense against bacterial pathogens. In murine macrophages infected by gram-negative bacteria, the canonical inflammasome activates caspase-1 to mediate pyroptotic cell death and release of IL-1 family cytokines. Additionally, a noncanonical inflammasome ...

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Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic Vibrio species [Microbiology]

26-May-2015 | Nur A. Hasan; Christopher J. Grim; Erin K. Lipp; Irma N. G. Rivera; Jongsik Chun; Bradd J. Haley; Elisa Taviani; Seo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. We report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel Vibrio species, Vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial ...

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Putative extremely long evolutionary stasis in bacteria might be explained by serial convergence [Biological Sciences]

19-May-2015 | Petr Dvořák; Dale A. Casamatta; Petr Hašler; Aloisie Poulíčková, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In a recent paper, Schopf et al. (1) analyzed 1.8-Ga-old fossil sulfur bacteria and found an intriguing morphological similarity between fossil and modern species. Moreover, the authors showed that the deep-water sulfur cycling environment, where these bacteria reside, has not significantly ...

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Increasing intracellular trehalose is sufficient to confer desiccation tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Genetics]

12-May-2015 | Hugo Tapia; Lindsey Young; Douglas Fox; Carolyn R. Bertozzi; Douglas Koshland, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Diverse organisms capable of surviving desiccation, termed anhydrobiotes, include species from bacteria, yeast, plants, and invertebrates. However, most organisms are sensitive to desiccation, likely due to an assortment of different stresses such as protein misfolding and aggregation, ...

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Coral symbiotic algae calcify ex hospite in partnership with bacteria [Environmental Sciences]

12-May-2015 | Jörg C. Frommlet; Maria L. Sousa; Artur Alves; Sandra I. Vieira; David J. Suggett; João Serôdio, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are commonly recognized as invertebrate endosymbionts that are of central importance for the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. However, the endosymbiotic phase within Symbiodinium life history is inherently tied to a more cryptic free-living (ex ...

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