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924 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Nonsense suppression in archaea [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | Arpita Bhattacharya; Caroline Köhrer; Debabrata Mandal; Uttam L. RajBhandary, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic ...

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How release of phosphate from mammalian F1-ATPase generates a rotary substep [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | John V. Bason; Martin G. Montgomery; Andrew G. W. Leslie; John E. Walker, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The rotation of the central stalk of F1-ATPase is driven by energy derived from the sequential binding of an ATP molecule to its three catalytic sites and the release of the products of hydrolysis. In human F1-ATPase, each 360° rotation consists of three 120° steps composed of substeps of about...

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A site of varicella-zoster virus vulnerability identified by structural studies of neutralizing antibodies bound to the glycoprotein complex gHgL [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | Yi Xing; Stefan L. Oliver; TuongVi Nguyen; Claudio Ciferri; Avishek Nandi; Julie Hickman; Cinzia Giovani; Edward Yan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), of the family Alphaherpesvirinae, causes varicella in children and young adults, potentially leading to herpes zoster later in life on reactivation from latency. The conserved herpesvirus glycoprotein gB and the heterodimer gHgL mediate virion envelope fusion with ...

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Crystal structure of the human mitochondrial chaperonin symmetrical football complex [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | Shahar Nisemblat; Oren Yaniv; Avital Parnas; Felix Frolow; Abdussalam Azem, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Human mitochondria harbor a single type I chaperonin system that is generally thought to function via a unique single-ring intermediate. To date, no crystal structure has been published for any mammalian type I chaperonin complex. In this study, we describe the crystal structure of a ...

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Major reorientation of tRNA substrates defines specificity of dihydrouridine synthases [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | Robert T. Byrne; Huw T. Jenkins; Daniel T. Peters; Fiona Whelan; James Stowell; Naveed Aziz; Pavel Kasatsky; Marina ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The reduction of specific uridines to dihydrouridine is one of the most common modifications in tRNA. Increased levels of the dihydrouridine modification are associated with cancer. Dihydrouridine synthases (Dus) from different subfamilies selectively reduce distinct uridines, located at ...

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Structural basis of human {gamma}-secretase assembly [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | Linfeng Sun; Lingyun Zhao; Guanghui Yang; Chuangye Yan; Rui Zhou; Xiaoyuan Zhou; Tian Xie; Yanyu Zhao; Shenjie Wu; X ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The four-component intramembrane protease γ-secretase is intricately linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Despite recent structural advances, the transmembrane segments (TMs) of γ-secretase remain to be specifically assigned. Here we report a 3D structure of human γ-secretase at ...

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Homologous trans-editing factors with broad tRNA specificity prevent mistranslation caused by serine/threonine misactivation [Biochemistry]

12-May-2015 | Ziwei Liu; Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez; Yuki Goto; Eva Maria Novoa; Lluís Ribas de Pouplana; Hiroaki Suga; Karin Musier-F ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) establish the rules of the genetic code, whereby each amino acid is attached to a cognate tRNA. Errors in this process lead to mistranslation, which can be toxic to cells. The selective forces exerted by species-specific requirements and environmental conditions ...

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Accessory NUMM (NDUFS6) subunit harbors a Zn-binding site and is essential for biogenesis of mitochondrial complex I [Biochemistry]

05-May-2015 | Katarzyna Kmita; Christophe Wirth; Judith Warnau; Sergio Guerrero-Castillo; Carola Hunte; Gerhard Hummer; Ville R. I ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Mitochondrial proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I) comprises more than 40 polypeptides and contains eight canonical FeS clusters. The integration of subunits and insertion of cofactors into the nascent complex is a complicated multistep process that is aided by ...

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EGFR inhibits DNA mismatch repair [Biochemistry]

05-May-2015 | Peggy Hsieh; Alexander H. Pearlman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Safeguarding the integrity of the genome should not be left to chance. Indeed, all organisms have highly effective mechanisms to detect and remove errors and lesions in DNA. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) serves as the final safeguard in assuring the fidelity of DNA replication from bacteria to humans ...

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pH-induced molecular shedding drives the formation of amyloid fibril-derived oligomers [Biochemistry]

05-May-2015 | Kevin W. Tipping; Theodoros K. Karamanos; Toral Jakhria; Matthew G. Iadanza; Sophia C. Goodchild; Roman Tuma; Neil A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Amyloid disorders cause debilitating illnesses through the formation of toxic protein aggregates. The mechanisms of amyloid toxicity and the nature of species responsible for mediating cellular dysfunction remain unclear. Here, using β2-microglobulin (β2m) as a model system, we show that the ...

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