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1,406 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Distinct roles of the photosystem II protein PsbS and zeaxanthin in the regulation of light harvesting in plants revealed by fluorescence lifetime snapshots [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Emily J. Sylak-Glassman; Alizée Malnoë; Eleonora De Re; Matthew D. Brooks; Alexandra Lee Fischer; Krishna K. Niyogi; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The photosystem II (PSII) protein PsbS and the enzyme violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE) are known to influence the dynamics of energy-dependent quenching (qE), the component of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) that allows plants to respond to fast fluctuations in light intensity. Although the ...

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Distinct roles of FKF1, GIGANTEA, and ZEITLUPE proteins in the regulation of CONSTANS stability in Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering [Plant Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Young Hun Song; Daniel A. Estrada; Richard S. Johnson; Somi K. Kim; Sang Yeol Lee; Michael J. MacCoss; Takato Imaizumi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Many plants measure changes in day length to synchronize their flowering time with appropriate seasons for maximum reproductive success. In Arabidopsis, the day-length–dependent regulation of CONSTANS (CO) protein stability is crucial to induce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression for flowering in ...

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Electric fingerprint of voltage sensor domains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Caio S. Souza; Cristiano Amaral; Werner Treptow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A dynamic transmembrane voltage field has been suggested as an intrinsic element in voltage sensor (VS) domains. Here, the dynamic field contribution to the VS energetics was analyzed via electrostatic calculations applied to a number of atomistic structures made available recently. We find that ...

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Trajectories of the ribosome as a Brownian nanomachine [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Ali Dashti; Peter Schwander; Robert Langlois; Russell Fung; Wen Li; Ahmad Hosseinizadeh; Hstau Y. Liao; Jesper Palle ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A Brownian machine, a tiny device buffeted by the random motions of molecules in the environment, is capable of exploiting these thermal motions for many of the conformational changes in its work cycle. Such machines are now thought to be ubiquitous, with the ribosome, a molecular machine ...

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Modulation of DNA loop lifetimes by the free energy of loop formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Yi-Ju Chen; Stephanie Johnson; Peter Mulligan; Andrew J. Spakowitz; Rob Phillips, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Storage and retrieval of the genetic information in cells is a dynamic process that requires the DNA to undergo dramatic structural rearrangements. DNA looping is a prominent example of such a structural rearrangement that is essential for transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and ...

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Rational design and synthesis of an orally bioavailable peptide guided by NMR amide temperature coefficients [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Conan K. Wang; Susan E. Northfield; Barbara Colless; Stephanie Chaousis; Ingrid Hamernig; Rink-Jan Lohman; Daniel S. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Enhancing the oral bioavailability of peptide drug leads is a major challenge in drug design. As such, methods to address this challenge are highly sought after by the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we propose a strategy to identify appropriate amides for N-methylation using temperature ...

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Electrostatic transition state stabilization rather than reactant destabilization provides the chemical basis for efficient chorismate mutase catalysis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Daniel Burschowsky; André van Eerde; Mats Ökvist; Alexander Kienhöfer; Peter Kast; Donald Hilvert; Ute Krengel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

For more than half a century, transition state theory has provided a useful framework for understanding the origins of enzyme catalysis. As proposed by Pauling, enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by binding transition states tighter than substrates, thereby lowering the activation energy ...

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Wnts produced by Osterix-expressing osteolineage cells regulate their proliferation and differentiation [Developmental Biology]

09-Dec-2014 | Si Hui Tan; Kshemendra Senarath-Yapa; Michael T. Chung; Michael T. Longaker; Joy Y. Wu; Roeland Nusse, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Wnt signaling is a critical regulator of bone development, but the identity and role of the Wnt-producing cells are still unclear. We addressed these questions through in situ hybridization, lineage tracing, and genetic experiments. First, we surveyed the expression of all 19 Wnt genes and Wnt ...

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Fibroblasts probe substrate rigidity with filopodia extensions before occupying an area [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Dec-2014 | Stephanie Wong; Wei-Hui Guo; Yu-Li Wang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Rigidity sensing and durotaxis are thought to be important elements in wound healing, tissue formation, and cancer treatment. It has been challenging, however, to study the underlying mechanism due to difficulties in capturing cells during the transient response to a rigidity interface. We have ...

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Neural precursor-specific expression of multiple Drosophila genes is driven by dual enhancer modules with overlapping function [Developmental Biology]

02-Dec-2014 | Steven W. Miller; Mark Rebeiz; Jenny E. Atanasov; James W. Posakony, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Transcriptional cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), or enhancers, are responsible for directing gene expression in specific territories and cell types during development. In some instances, the same gene may be served by two or more enhancers with similar specificities. Here we show that the ...

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