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1,702 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Filip Persson; Bertil Halle, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics ...

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Heterochrony underpins natural variation in Cardamine hirsuta leaf form [Plant Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Maria Cartolano; Bjorn Pieper; Janne Lempe; Alex Tattersall; Peter Huijser; Achim Tresch; Peter R. Darrah; Angela Ha ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A key problem in biology is whether the same processes underlie morphological variation between and within species. Here, by using plant leaves as an example, we show that the causes of diversity at these two evolutionary scales can be divergent. Some species like the model plant Arabidopsis ...

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Mapping the conformation of a client protein through the Hsp70 functional cycle [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Ashok Sekhar; Rina Rosenzweig; Guillaume Bouvignies; Lewis E. Kay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) chaperone system is ubiquitous, highly conserved, and involved in a myriad of diverse cellular processes. Its function relies on nucleotide-dependent interactions with client proteins, yet the structural features of folding-competent substrates in their ...

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Controlling barrier formation [Plant Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Rochus Benni Franke, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cell walls are essential features of plant cells and modifications of this apoplastic space implement a number of structural and physiological functions. The Casparian strip (CS), named after its 1865 discoverer Robert Caspary (1), is a remarkable cell wall modification that all biology students ...

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Three types of rescue can avert extinction in a changing environment [Population Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Ruth A. Hufbauer; Marianna Szűcs; Emily Kasyon; Courtney Youngberg; Michael J. Koontz; Christopher Richards; Ty Tuff ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Setting aside high-quality large areas of habitat to protect threatened populations is becoming increasingly difficult as humans fragment and degrade the environment. Biologists and managers therefore must determine the best way to shepherd small populations through the dual challenges of ...

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Critical waves and the length problem of biology [Physics]

18-Aug-2015 | Robert B. Laughlin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

It is pointed out that the mystery of how biological systems measure their lengths vanishes away if one premises that they have discovered a way to generate linear waves analogous to compressional sound. These can be used to detect length at either large or small scales using echo timing and...

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Iterative phasing for fluctuation X-ray scattering [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Jeffrey J. Donatelli; Peter H. Zwart; James A. Sethian, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS) is an extension of small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering in which the X-ray snapshots are taken below rotational diffusion times. This technique, performed using a free electron laser or ultrabright synchrotron source, provides significantly more experimental ...

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Nucleotides regulate the mechanical hierarchy between subdomains of the nucleotide binding domain of the Hsp70 chaperone DnaK [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | Daniela Bauer; Dale R. Merz; Benjamin Pelz; Kelly E. Theisen; Gail Yacyshyn; Dejana Mokranjac; Ruxandra I. Dima; Mat ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The regulation of protein function through ligand-induced conformational changes is crucial for many signal transduction processes. The binding of a ligand alters the delicate energy balance within the protein structure, eventually leading to such conformational changes. In this study, we ...

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Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates [Colloquium Paper]

18-Aug-2015 | Richard G. Dorrell; Christopher J. Howe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this ...

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At14a-Like1 participates in membrane-associated mechanisms promoting growth during drought in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]

18-Aug-2015 | M. Nagaraj Kumar; Yi-Fang Hsieh; Paul E. Verslues, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Limited knowledge of how plants regulate their growth and metabolism in response to drought and reduced soil water potential has impeded efforts to improve stress tolerance. Increased expression of the membrane-associated protein At14a-like1 (AFL1) led to increased growth and accumulation of the ...

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