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1,865 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Profile of Benjamin Cravatt [Profiles]

02-Feb-2016 | Jennifer Viegas, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Bridging the fields of chemistry and biology, Benjamin Cravatt and his research group have developed and applied technologies to discover biochemical pathways in mammalian biology and disease. Cravatt, who was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2014 and is chair of the Department of ...

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Multiscale model of light harvesting by photosystem II in plants [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Kapil Amarnath; Doran I. G. Bennett; Anna R. Schneider; Graham R. Fleming, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The first step of photosynthesis in plants is the absorption of sunlight by pigments in the antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII), followed by transfer of the nascent excitation energy to the reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated. Quantum mechanical ...

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PGL germ granule assembly protein is a base-specific, single-stranded RNase [Developmental Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Scott T. Aoki; Aaron M. Kershner; Craig A. Bingman; Marvin Wickens; Judith Kimble, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Cellular RNA-protein (RNP) granules are ubiquitous and have fundamental roles in biology and RNA metabolism, but the molecular basis of their structure, assembly, and function is poorly understood. Using nematode “P-granules” as a paradigm, we focus on the PGL granule scaffold protein to gain ...

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Synthetic gene network restoring endogenous pituitary-thyroid feedback control in experimental Graves’ disease [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Pratik Saxena; Ghislaine Charpin-El Hamri; Marc Folcher; Henryk Zulewski; Martin Fussenegger, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism because of autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on the thyroid gland, triggering thyroid hormone release. The physiological control of thyroid hormone homeostasis by the feedback loops ...

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Folding and assembly of the large molecular machine Hsp90 studied in single-molecule experiments [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Markus Jahn; Johannes Buchner; Thorsten Hugel; Matthias Rief, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Folding of small proteins often occurs in a two-state manner and is well understood both experimentally and theoretically. However, many proteins are much larger and often populate misfolded states, complicating their folding process significantly. Here we study the complete folding and assembly ...

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Protonation-dependent conformational dynamics of the multidrug transporter EmrE [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Reza Dastvan; Axel W. Fischer; Smriti Mishra; Jens Meiler; Hassane S. Mchaourab, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The small multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli, EmrE, couples the energetically uphill extrusion of hydrophobic cations out of the cell to the transport of two protons down their electrochemical gradient. Although principal mechanistic elements of proton/substrate antiport have been ...

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Enhanced, targeted sampling of high-dimensional free-energy landscapes using variationally enhanced sampling, with an application to chignolin [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Patrick Shaffer; Omar Valsson; Michele Parrinello, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The capabilities of molecular simulations have been greatly extended by a number of widely used enhanced sampling methods that facilitate escaping from metastable states and crossing large barriers. Despite these developments there are still many problems which remain out of reach for these ...

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Crystal structure of the pristine peroxidase ferryl center and its relevance to proton-coupled electron transfer [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Georges Chreifi; Elizabeth L. Baxter; Tzanko Doukov; Aina E. Cohen; Scott E. McPhillips; Jinhu Song; Yergalem T. Meh ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The reaction of peroxides with peroxidases oxidizes the heme iron from Fe(III) to Fe(IV)=O and a porphyrin or aromatic side chain to a cationic radical. X-ray–generated hydrated electrons rapidly reduce Fe(IV), thereby requiring very short exposures using many crystals, and, even then, some ...

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X-ray structure of the MMTV-A nucleosome core [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Timothy D. Frouws; Sylwia C. Duda; Timothy J. Richmond, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The conformation of DNA bound in nucleosomes depends on the DNA sequence. Questions such as how nucleosomes are positioned and how they potentially bind sequence-dependent nuclear factors require near-atomic resolution structures of the nucleosome core containing different DNA sequences; despite ...

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PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root [Plant Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Kun Yue; Priyanka Sandal; Elisabeth L. Williams; Evan Murphy; Elisabeth Stes; Natalia Nikonorova; Priya Ramakrishna; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its ...

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