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630 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Transition state for the NSD2-catalyzed methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 [Biochemistry]

02-Feb-2016 | Myles B. Poulin; Jessica L. Schneck; Rosalie E. Matico; Patrick J. McDevitt; Michael J. Huddleston; Wangfang Hou; Ne ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Nuclear receptor SET domain containing protein 2 (NSD2) catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36). It is a determinant in Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome and is overexpressed in human multiple myeloma. Despite the relevance of NSD2 to cancer, there are no potent, selective inhibitors of ...

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Common BRAF(V600E)-directed pathway mediates widespread epigenetic silencing in colorectal cancer and melanoma [Cell Biology]

02-Feb-2016 | Minggang Fang; Lloyd Hutchinson; April Deng; Michael R. Green, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

During cancer development, it is well established that many genes, including tumor suppressor genes, are hypermethylated and transcriptionally repressed, a phenomenon referred to as epigenetic silencing. In general, the factors involved in, and the mechanistic basis of, epigenetic silencing ...

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Heightened self-reactivity associated with selective survival, but not expansion, of naive virus-specific CD8+ T cells in aged mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

02-Feb-2016 | Kylie M. Quinn; Sophie G. Zaloumis; Tania Cukalac; Wan-Ting Kan; Xavier Y. X. Sng; Michiko Mirams; Katherine A. Wats ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

In advanced age, decreased CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8+ T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms ...

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Stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3) and {beta}3GalT5 are cancer specific and significant markers for breast cancer stem cells [Biochemistry]

26-Jan-2016 | Sarah K. C. Cheung; Po-Kai Chuang; Han-Wen Huang; Wendy W. Hwang-Verslues; Candy Hsin-Hua Cho; Wen-Bin Yang; Chia-Ni ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for self-renewal and tumor growth in heterogeneous cancer tissues, has stimulated interests in developing new cancer therapies and early diagnosis. However, the markers currently used for isolation of CSCs are often not selective ...

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Sweet beginning for cancer stem cells [Biochemistry]

26-Jan-2016 | Linda G. Baum, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The concept of “oncofetal antigens” (i.e., biomarkers that are expressed both on normal developing fetal tissue and on human cancer cells) was proposed in the 1960s, before we knew very much about cancer cell heterogeneity or had even conceptualized the cancer stem cell. It is now clear that ...

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Imaging of the cross-presenting dendritic cell subsets in the skin-draining lymph node [Immunology and Inflammation]

26-Jan-2016 | Masahiro Kitano; Chihiro Yamazaki; Akiko Takumi; Takashi Ikeno; Hiroaki Hemmi; Noriko Takahashi; Kanako Shimizu; Sco ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized for activating T cells to elicit effector T-cell functions. Cross-presenting DCs are a DC subset capable of presenting antigens to CD8+ T cells and play critical roles in cytotoxic T-cell–mediated immune responses to microorganisms ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

26-Jan-2016 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Improved control of engineered T cells Scanning electron micrograph of human T cell. Image courtesy of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells engineered to recognize cancer cells have produced remissions of B-cell leukemia in clinical ...

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Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis [Medical Sciences]

19-Jan-2016 | Olaia A. Martínez-Iglesias; Elvira Alonso-Merino; Sara Gómez-Rey; Juan Pedro Velasco-Martín; Rosa Martín Orozco; Enr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to ...

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Micronucleus formation causes perpetual unilateral chromosome inheritance in mouse embryos [Cell Biology]

19-Jan-2016 | Cayetana Vázquez-Diez; Kazuo Yamagata; Shardul Trivedi; Jenna Haverfield; Greg FitzHarris, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Chromosome segregation defects in cancer cells lead to encapsulation of chromosomes in micronuclei (MN), small nucleus-like structures within which dangerous DNA rearrangements termed chromothripsis can occur. Here we uncover a strikingly different consequence of MN formation in preimplantation ...

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Combination OX40 agonism/CTLA-4 blockade with HER2 vaccination reverses T-cell anergy and promotes survival in tumor-bearing mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

19-Jan-2016 | Stefanie N. Linch; Melissa J. Kasiewicz; Michael J. McNamara; Ian F. Hilgart-Martiszus; Mohammad Farhad; William L. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Immunotherapy is gathering momentum as a primary therapy for cancer patients. However, monotherapies have limited efficacy in improving outcomes and benefit only a subset of patients. Combination therapies targeting multiple pathways can augment an immune response to improve survival further. ...

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