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323 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Classification of charge density waves based on their nature [Physics]

24-Feb-2015 | Xuetao Zhu; Yanwei Cao; Jiandi Zhang; E. W. Plummer; Jiandong Guo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The concept of a charge density wave (CDW) permeates much of condensed matter physics and chemistry. CDWs have their origin rooted in the instability of a one-dimensional system described by Peierls. The extension of this concept to reduced dimensional systems has led to the concept of Fermi ...

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Revealing the density of encoded functions in a viral RNA [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Nikesh Patel; Eric C. Dykeman; Robert H. A. Coutts; George P. Lomonossoff; David J. Rowlands; Simon E. V. Phillips; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We present direct experimental evidence that assembly of a single-stranded RNA virus occurs via a packaging signal-mediated mechanism. We show that the sequences of coat protein recognition motifs within multiple, dispersed, putative RNA packaging signals, as well as their relative spacing within ...

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A methyltransferase required for proper timing of the vernalization response in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

17-Feb-2015 | Joohyun Lee; Jae-Young Yun; Wei Zhao; Wen-Hui Shen; Richard M. Amasino, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Prolonged exposure to winter cold enables flowering in many plant species through a process called vernalization. In Arabidopsis, vernalization results from the epigenetic silencing of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) via a Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated increase in the ...

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Differential RNA-seq of Vibrio cholerae identifies the VqmR small RNA as a regulator of biofilm formation [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Kai Papenfort; Konrad U. Förstner; Jian-Ping Cong; Cynthia M. Sharma; Bonnie L. Bassler, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of cell-to-cell communication that enables bacteria to transition between individual and collective lifestyles. QS controls virulence and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera disease. Differential RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of ...

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Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor's law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry [Ecology]

10-Feb-2015 | Clément Lagrue; Robert Poulin; Joel E. Cohen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we ...

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Twentieth-century shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks [Ecology]

03-Feb-2015 | Patrick J. McIntyre; James H. Thorne; Christopher R. Dolanc; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint; Maggi Kelly; David D. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between ...

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Reply to Bada and Cleaves: Ab initio free-energy landscape of Miller-like prebiotic reactions [Physical Sciences]

27-Jan-2015 | Antonino Marco Saitta; Franz Saija; Fabio Pietrucci; François Guyot, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In their letter addressing a recent ab initio density-functional theory-based study of Miller-like experiments (1), Bada and Cleaves (2) downplay the role of formamide, citing its half-life, lower than that of HCN, and the fact that the calculations were performed in aqueous phase rather than in ...

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Opinion: Control vs. eradication: Applying infectious disease treatment strategies to cancer [Opinion]

27-Jan-2015 | Gunther Jansen; Robert Gatenby; C. Athena Aktipis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Clinical treatment for metastatic cancer has traditionally entailed administering the highest possible dose in the shortest period, a strategy known as high-dose density therapy. The implicit goal is complete eradication. Unfortunately, a systemic cure for most metastatic cancers remains elusive, ...

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Semilocal density functional obeying a strongly tightened bound for exchange [Chemistry]

20-Jan-2015 | Jianwei Sun; John P. Perdew; Adrienn Ruzsinszky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Because of its useful accuracy and efficiency, density functional theory (DFT) is one of the most widely used electronic structure theories in physics, materials science, and chemistry. Only the exchange-correlation energy is unknown, and needs to be approximated in practice. Exact constraints ...

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Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans [Anthropology]

13-Jan-2015 | Habiba Chirchir; Tracy L. Kivell; Christopher B. Ruff; Jean-Jacques Hublin; Kristian J. Carlson; Bernhard Zipfel; Br ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at ...

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