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332 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Random sampling of skewed distributions implies Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling [Statistics]

23-Jun-2015 | Joel E. Cohen; Meng Xu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Taylor’s law (TL), a widely verified quantitative pattern in ecology and other sciences, describes the variance in a species’ population density (or other nonnegative quantity) as a power-law function of the mean density (or other nonnegative quantity): Approximately, variance = a(mean)b, a > 0. ...

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High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure [Chemistry]

23-Jun-2015 | Naoaki Yabuuchi; Mitsue Takeuchi; Masanobu Nakayama; Hiromasa Shiiba; Masahiro Ogawa; Keisuke Nakayama; Toshiaki Oht ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing ...

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Predicting visual acuity from the structure of visual cortex [Computer Sciences]

23-Jun-2015 | Shyam Srinivasan; C. Nikoosh Carlo; Charles F. Stevens, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Three decades ago, Rockel et al. proposed that neuronal surface densities (number of neurons under a square millimeter of surface) of primary visual cortices (V1s) in primates is 2.5 times higher than the neuronal density of V1s in nonprimates or many other cortical regions in primates and ...

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Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress [Cell Biology]

16-Jun-2015 | Paula Nunes; Isabelle Roth; Paolo Meda; Eric Féraille; Dennis Brown; Udo Hasler, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell ...

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Designing multivalent probes for tunable superselective targeting [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

05-May-2015 | Galina V. Dubacheva; Tine Curk; Rachel Auzély-Velty; Daan Frenkel; Ralf P. Richter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Specific targeting is common in biology and is a key challenge in nanomedicine. It was recently demonstrated that multivalent probes can selectively target surfaces with a defined density of surface binding sites. Here we show, using a combination of experiments and simulations on multivalent ...

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Engineering three-dimensional hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors for high-performance integrated energy storage [Chemistry]

07-Apr-2015 | Maher F. El-Kady; Melanie Ihns; Mengping Li; Jee Youn Hwang; Mir F. Mousavi; Lindsay Chaney; Andrew T. Lech; Richard ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Supercapacitors now play an important role in the progress of hybrid and electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and military and space applications. There is a growing demand in developing hybrid supercapacitor systems to overcome the energy density limitations of the current generation of ...

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Quorum-sensing Salmonella selectively trigger protein expression within tumors [Engineering]

17-Mar-2015 | Charles A. Swofford; Nele Van Dessel; Neil S. Forbes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Salmonella that secrete anticancer proteins have the potential to eliminate tumors, but nonspecific expression causes damage to healthy tissue. We hypothesize that Salmonella, integrated with a density-dependent switch, would only express proteins in tightly packed colonies within tumors. To test ...

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Lrp4 in osteoblasts suppresses bone formation and promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption [Medical Sciences]

17-Mar-2015 | Lei Xiong; Ji-Ung Jung; Haitao Wu; Wen-Fang Xia; Jin-Xiu Pan; Chengyong Shen; Lin Mei; Wen-Cheng Xiong, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Bone mass is maintained by balanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4) is a member of the LDL receptor family, whose mutations have been identified in patients with high–bone-mass disorders, such as sclerosteosis and van Buchem ...

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Predator diversity, intraguild predation, and indirect effects drive parasite transmission [Ecology]

10-Mar-2015 | Jason R. Rohr; David J. Civitello; Patrick W. Crumrine; Neal T. Halstead; Andrew D. Miller; Anna M. Schotthoefer; Ca ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Humans are altering biodiversity globally and infectious diseases are on the rise; thus, there is interest in understanding how changes to biodiversity affect disease. Here, we explore how predator diversity shapes parasite transmission. In a mesocosm experiment that manipulated predator (larval ...

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Classification of charge density waves based on their nature [Physics]

24-Feb-2015 | Xuetao Zhu; Yanwei Cao; Jiandi Zhang; E. W. Plummer; Jiandong Guo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The concept of a charge density wave (CDW) permeates much of condensed matter physics and chemistry. CDWs have their origin rooted in the instability of a one-dimensional system described by Peierls. The extension of this concept to reduced dimensional systems has led to the concept of Fermi ...

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