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902 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle [Evolution]

07-Apr-2015 | Nathan Walworth; Ulrike Pfreundt; William C. Nelson; Tracy Mincer; John F. Heidelberg; Feixue Fu; John B. Waterbury; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium ...

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A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa [Evolution]

31-Mar-2015 | Henry Wichura; Louis L. Jacobs; Andrew Lin; Michael J. Polcyn; Fredrick K. Manthi; Dale A. Winkler; Manfred R. Strec ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too ...

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Coselected genes determine adaptive variation in herbivore resistance throughout the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana [Evolution]

31-Mar-2015 | Benjamin Brachi; Christopher G. Meyer; Romain Villoutreix; Alexander Platt; Timothy C. Morton; Fabrice Roux; Joy Ber ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The “mustard oil bomb” is a major defense mechanism in the Brassicaceae, which includes crops such as canola and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants produce and store blends of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Upon tissue rupture by natural enemies, ...

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PAB is an assembly chaperone that functions downstream of chaperonin 60 in the assembly of chloroplast ATP synthase coupling factor 1 [Plant Biology]

31-Mar-2015 | Juan Mao; Wei Chi; Min Ouyang; Baoye He; Fan Chen; Lixin Zhang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The chloroplast ATP synthase, a multisubunit complex in the thylakoid membrane, catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP, thereby supplying the energy for carbon fixation during photosynthesis. The chloroplast ATP synthase is composed of both nucleus- and chloroplast-encoded proteins that have ...

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Sponge grade body fossil with cellular resolution dating 60 Myr before the Cambrian [Evolution]

24-Mar-2015 | Zongjun Yin; Maoyan Zhu; Eric H. Davidson; David J. Bottjer; Fangchen Zhao; Paul Tafforeau, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

An extraordinarily well preserved, 600-million-year (Myr)-old, three-dimensionally phosphatized fossil displaying multiple independent characters of modern adult sponges has been analyzed by SEM and synchrotron X-ray tomography. The fossilized animal (Eocyathispongia qiania gen. et sp. nov.) is ...

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Not-so-early bursts and the dynamic nature of morphological diversification [Evolution]

24-Mar-2015 | Graham J. Slater, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In Wonderful Life, Stephen Jay Gould attempted to explain how the bizarre animal fossils from the 500 million-y-old Burgess Shale fauna teach a valuable lesson about the nature of morphological evolution (1). Finding such a remarkable diversity of body plans so early in the history of metazoan ...

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Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

24-Mar-2015 | Melanie J. Hopkins; Andrew B. Smith, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

How ecological and morphological diversity accrues over geological time has been much debated by paleobiologists. Evidence from the fossil record suggests that many clades reach maximal diversity early in their evolutionary history, followed by a decline in evolutionary rates as ecological space ...

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Extraordinary diversity of visual opsin genes in dragonflies [Evolution]

17-Mar-2015 | Ryo Futahashi; Ryouka Kawahara-Miki; Michiyo Kinoshita; Kazutoshi Yoshitake; Shunsuke Yajima; Kentaro Arikawa; Takem ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Dragonflies are colorful and large-eyed animals strongly dependent on color vision. Here we report an extraordinary large number of opsin genes in dragonflies and their characteristic spatiotemporal expression patterns. Exhaustive transcriptomic and genomic surveys of three dragonflies of the ...

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Whole-genome sequence of the Tibetan frog Nanorana parkeri and the comparative evolution of tetrapod genomes [Evolution]

17-Mar-2015 | Yan-Bo Sun; Zi-Jun Xiong; Xue-Yan Xiang; Shi-Ping Liu; Wei-Wei Zhou; Xiao-Long Tu; Li Zhong; Lu Wang; Dong-Dong Wu; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs ...

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Evidence for recent, population-specific evolution of the human mutation rate [Anthropology]

17-Mar-2015 | Kelley Harris, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

As humans dispersed out of Africa they adapted to new environmental challenges, including changes in exposure to mutagenic solar radiation. Humans in temperate latitudes have acquired light skin that is relatively transparent to UV light, and some evidence suggests that their DNA damage response ...

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