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948 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution [Anthropology]

16-Jun-2015 | Adrienne L. Zihlman; Debra R. Bolter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest ...

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Gain of cis-regulatory activities underlies novel domains of wingless gene expression in Drosophila [Evolution]

16-Jun-2015 | Shigeyuki Koshikawa; Matt W. Giorgianni; Kathy Vaccaro; Victoria A. Kassner; John H. Yoder; Thomas Werner; Sean B. C ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Changes in gene expression during animal development are largely responsible for the evolution of morphological diversity. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for the origins of new gene-expression domains have been difficult to elucidate. Here, we sought to identify ...

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Measuring ruggedness in fitness landscapes [Evolution]

16-Jun-2015 | Jeremy Van Cleve; Daniel B. Weissman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

How important are interactions among mutations for adaptation? Obviously, no gene functions in isolation, but it is possible that assuming that mutations have independent effects could still give a good prediction for how adaptation proceeds. In PNAS, Nahum et al. (1) use an elegant combination ...

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Evolutionary comparison reveals that diverging CTCF sites are signatures of ancestral topological associating domains borders [Evolution]

16-Jun-2015 | Carlos Gómez-Marín; Juan J. Tena; Rafael D. Acemel; Macarena López-Mayorga; Silvia Naranjo; Elisa de la Calle-Mustie ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Increasing evidence in the last years indicates that the vast amount of regulatory information contained in mammalian genomes is organized in precise 3D chromatin structures. However, the impact of this spatial chromatin organization on gene expression and its degree of evolutionary conservation ...

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Imperfect drug penetration leads to spatial monotherapy and rapid evolution of multidrug resistance [Evolution]

02-Jun-2015 | Stefany Moreno-Gamez; Alison L. Hill; Daniel I. S. Rosenbloom; Dmitri A. Petrov; Martin A. Nowak; Pleuni S. Pennings, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Infections with rapidly evolving pathogens are often treated using combinations of drugs with different mechanisms of action. One of the major goal of combination therapy is to reduce the risk of drug resistance emerging during a patient’s treatment. Although this strategy generally has ...

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Kibble-Zurek mechanism in colloidal monolayers [Physics]

02-Jun-2015 | Sven Deutschländer; Patrick Dillmann; Georg Maret; Peter Keim, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The Kibble–Zurek mechanism describes the evolution of topological defect structures like domain walls, strings, and monopoles when a system is driven through a second-order phase transition. The model is used on very different scales like the Higgs field in the early universe or quantum fluids in ...

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Using homology relations within a database markedly boosts protein sequence similarity search [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02-Jun-2015 | Jing Tong; Ruslan I. Sadreyev; Jimin Pei; Lisa N. Kinch; Nick V. Grishin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Inference of homology from protein sequences provides an essential tool for analyzing protein structure, function, and evolution. Current sequence-based homology search methods are still unable to detect many similarities evident from protein spatial structures. In computer science a search ...

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Rapid molecular evolution across amniotes of the IIS/TOR network [Evolution]

02-Jun-2015 | Suzanne E. McGaugh; Anne M. Bronikowski; Chih-Horng Kuo; Dawn M. Reding; Elizabeth A. Addis; Lex E. Flagel; Fredric ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) network regulates lifespan and reproduction, as well as metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. Despite its vital role in health, comparative analyses of IIS/TOR have been limited to invertebrates and mammals. We conducted an ...

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Entamoeba mitosomes play an important role in encystation by association with cholesteryl sulfate synthesis [Evolution]

02-Jun-2015 | Fumika Mi-ichi; Tomofumi Miyamoto; Shouko Takao; Ghulam Jeelani; Tetsuo Hashimoto; Hiromitsu Hara; Tomoyoshi Nozaki; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in ...

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Body size affects the evolution of eyespots in caterpillars [Evolution]

26-May-2015 | Thomas John Hossie; John Skelhorn; Jesse W. Breinholt; Akito Y. Kawahara; Thomas N. Sherratt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Many caterpillars have conspicuous eye-like markings, called eyespots. Despite recent work demonstrating the efficacy of eyespots in deterring predator attack, a fundamental question remains: Given their protective benefits, why have eyespots not evolved in more caterpillars? Using a ...

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