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837 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Speciation with gene flow in equids despite extensive chromosomal plasticity [Evolution]

30-Dec-2014 | Hákon Jónsson; Mikkel Schubert; Andaine Seguin-Orlando; Aurélien Ginolhac; Lillian Petersen; Matteo Fumagalli; Ander ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Horses, asses, and zebras belong to a single genus, Equus, which emerged 4.0–4.5 Mya. Although the equine fossil record represents a textbook example of evolution, the succession of events that gave rise to the diversity of species existing today remains unclear. Here we present six genomes from ...

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Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication [Evolution]

30-Dec-2014 | Mikkel Schubert; Hákon Jónsson; Dan Chang; Clio Der Sarkissian; Luca Ermini; Aurélien Ginolhac; Anders Albrechtsen; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The domestication of the horse ∼5.5 kya and the emergence of mounted riding, chariotry, and cavalry dramatically transformed human civilization. However, the genetics underlying horse domestication are difficult to reconstruct, given the near extinction of wild horses. We therefore sequenced two ...

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HSP90 empowers evolution of resistance to hormonal therapy in human breast cancer models [Medical Sciences]

23-Dec-2014 | Luke Whitesell; Sandro Santagata; Marc L. Mendillo; Nancy U. Lin; David A. Proia; Susan Lindquist, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The efficacy of hormonal therapies for advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers is limited by the nearly inevitable development of acquired resistance. Efforts to block the emergence of resistance have met with limited success, largely because the mechanisms underlying it are so varied ...

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The birth of a dinosaur footprint: Subsurface 3D motion reconstruction and discrete element simulation reveal track ontogeny [Evolution]

23-Dec-2014 | Peter L. Falkingham; Stephen M. Gatesy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Locomotion over deformable substrates is a common occurrence in nature. Footprints represent sedimentary distortions that provide anatomical, functional, and behavioral insights into trackmaker biology. The interpretation of such evidence can be challenging, however, particularly for fossil ...

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Regulatory modulation of the T-box gene Tbx5 links development, evolution, and adaptation of the sternum [Developmental Biology]

16-Dec-2014 | Sorrel R. B. Bickley; Malcolm P. O. Logan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The sternum bone lies at the ventral midline of the thorax where it provides a critical attachment for the pectoral muscles that allow the forelimbs to raise the body from the ground. Among tetrapods, sternum morphology is correlated with the mode of locomotion: Avians that fly have a ventral ...

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Correction for Cleves et al., Evolved tooth gain in sticklebacks is associated with a cis-regulatory allele of Bmp6 [Correction]

16-Dec-2014 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

EVOLUTION Correction for “Evolved tooth gain in sticklebacks is associated with a cis-regulatory allele of Bmp6,” by Phillip A. Cleves, Nicholas A. Ellis, Monica T. Jimenez, Stephanie M. Nunez, Dolph Schluter, David M. Kingsley, and Craig T. Miller, which appeared in issue 38, September 23, 2014, ...

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Evolution-guided optimization of biosynthetic pathways [Applied Biological Sciences]

16-Dec-2014 | Srivatsan Raman; Jameson K. Rogers; Noah D. Taylor; George M. Church, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Engineering biosynthetic pathways for chemical production requires extensive optimization of the host cellular metabolic machinery. Because it is challenging to specify a priori an optimal design, metabolic engineers often need to construct and evaluate a large number of variants of the pathway. ...

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Evolution of a plant-specific copper chaperone family for chloroplast copper homeostasis [Plant Biology]

16-Dec-2014 | Crysten E. Blaby-Haas; Teresita Padilla-Benavides; Roland Stübe; José M. Argüello; Sabeeha S. Merchant, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Metallochaperones traffic copper (Cu+) from its point of entry at the plasma membrane to its destination. In plants, one destination is the chloroplast, which houses plastocyanin, a Cu-dependent electron transfer protein involved in photosynthesis. We present a previously unidentified Cu+ ...

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Evolution in changing environments: Modifiers of mutation, recombination, and migration [Evolution]

16-Dec-2014 | Oana Carja; Uri Liberman; Marcus W. Feldman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The production and maintenance of genetic and phenotypic diversity under temporally fluctuating selection and the signatures of environmental changes in the patterns of this variation have been important areas of focus in population genetics. On one hand, periods of constant selection pull the ...

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Modeling local and cross-species neuron number variations in the cerebral cortex as arising from a common mechanism [Neuroscience]

09-Dec-2014 | Diarmuid J. Cahalane; Christine J. Charvet; Barbara L. Finlay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A massive increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, driving its size to increase by five orders of magnitude, is a key feature of mammalian evolution. Not only are there systematic variations in cerebral cortical architecture across species, but also across spatial axes within a ...

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