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880 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Interchangeable allies: Exploiting development and selection to swap symbionts [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Nicole M. Gerardo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The interdependence of some microbes and their hosts is profound. Coevolution has led to hosts whose survival and reproduction is dependent upon the presence of a specific microbial partner, and to microbes that have adapted to life within hosts. Such obligate microbial symbioses are present ...

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Rate of language evolution is affected by population size [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Lindell Bromham; Xia Hua; Thomas G. Fitzpatrick; Simon J. Greenhill, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The effect of population size on patterns and rates of language evolution is controversial. Do languages with larger speaker populations change faster due to a greater capacity for innovation, or do smaller populations change faster due to more efficient diffusion of innovations? Do smaller ...

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Matching times of leading and following suggest cooperation through direct reciprocity during V-formation flight in ibis [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Bernhard Voelkl; Steven J. Portugal; Markus Unsöld; James R. Usherwood; Alan M. Wilson; Johannes Fritz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

One conspicuous feature of several larger bird species is their annual migration in V-shaped or echelon formation. When birds are flying in these formations, energy savings can be achieved by using the aerodynamic up-wash produced by the preceding bird. As the leading bird in a formation cannot ...

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Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Nancy A. Moran; Yueli Yun, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary ...

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Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Romain Derelle; Guifré Torruella; Vladimír Klimeš; Henner Brinkmann; Eunsoo Kim; Čestmír Vlček; B. Franz Lang; Marek ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The large phylogenetic distance separating eukaryotic genes and their archaeal orthologs has prevented identification of the position of the eukaryotic root in phylogenomic studies. Recently, an innovative approach has been proposed to circumvent this issue: the use as phylogenetic markers of ...

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Scaling laws describe memories of host-pathogen riposte in the HIV population [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

17-Feb-2015 | John P. Barton; Mehran Kardar; Arup K. Chakraborty, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The enormous genetic diversity and mutability of HIV has prevented effective control of this virus by natural immune responses or vaccination. Evolution of the circulating HIV population has thus occurred in response to diverse, ultimately ineffective, immune selection pressures that randomly ...

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The spontaneous emergence of conventions: An experimental study of cultural evolution [Applied Physical Sciences]

17-Feb-2015 | Damon Centola; Andrea Baronchelli, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

How do shared conventions emerge in complex decentralized social systems? This question engages fields as diverse as linguistics, sociology, and cognitive science. Previous empirical attempts to solve this puzzle all presuppose that formal or informal institutions, such as incentives for global ...

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Crossovers are associated with mutation and biased gene conversion at recombination hotspots [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Barbara Arbeithuber; Andrea J. Betancourt; Thomas Ebner; Irene Tiemann-Boege, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Meiosis is a potentially important source of germline mutations, as sites of meiotic recombination experience recurrent double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, evidence for a local mutagenic effect of recombination from population sequence data has been equivocal, likely because mutation is only ...

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Characterization of nonprimate hepacivirus and construction of a functional molecular clone [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Troels K. H. Scheel; Amit Kapoor; Eiko Nishiuchi; Kenny V. Brock; Yingpu Yu; Linda Andrus; Meigang Gu; Randall W. Re ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) is the closest known relative of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its study could enrich our understanding of HCV evolution, immunity, and pathogenesis. High seropositivity is found in horses worldwide with ∼3% viremic. NPHV natural history and molecular virology remain ...

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Reassessment of global gene-language coevolution [Evolution]

17-Feb-2015 | Keith Hunley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In On the Origin of Species, Darwin proposed that human races and languages evolved in concert following a tree-like history of splits and isolation (1). Linguists and anthropologists have long been skeptical of this idea because historical and ethnographic evidence suggest that group boundaries ...

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