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914 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Retroviral envelope syncytin capture in an ancestrally diverged mammalian clade for placentation in the primitive Afrotherian tenrecs [Microbiology]

14-10-2014 | Guillaume Cornelis; Cécile Vernochet; Sébastien Malicorne; Sylvie Souquere; Athanasia C. Tzika; Steven M. Goodman; F ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Syncytins are fusogenic envelope (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Syncytins have been identified in Euarchontoglires (primates, rodents, Leporidae) and Laurasiatheria (Carnivora, ruminants) placental mammals. Here, we searched for similar ...

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Rice SPX1 and SPX2 inhibit phosphate starvation responses through interacting with PHR2 in a phosphate-dependent manner [Plant Biology]

14-10-2014 | Zhiye Wang; Wenyuan Ruan; Jing Shi; Li Zhang; Dan Xiang; Chao Yang; Changying Li; Zhongchang Wu; Yu Liu; Yanan Yu; H ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In plants, sensing the levels of external and internal nutrients is essential for reprogramming the transcriptome and adapting to the fluctuating environment. Phosphate (Pi) is a key plant nutrient, and a large proportion of Pi starvation-responsive genes are under the control of PHOSPHATE ...

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Genomic donor cassette sharing during VLRA and VLRC assembly in jawless vertebrates [Immunology and Inflammation]

14-10-2014 | Sabyasachi Das; Jianxu Li; Stephen J. Holland; Lakshminarayan M. Iyer; Masayuki Hirano; Michael Schorpp; L. Aravind; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Lampreys possess two T-like lymphocyte lineages that express either variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) A or VLRC antigen receptors. VLRA+ and VLRC+ lymphocytes share many similarities with the two principal T-cell lineages of jawed vertebrates expressing the αβ and γδ T-cell receptors (TCRs). ...

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Precisely modulated pathogenicity island interference with late phage gene transcription [Microbiology]

07-10-2014 | Geeta Ram; John Chen; Hope F. Ross; Richard P. Novick, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Having gone to great evolutionary lengths to develop resistance to bacteriophages, bacteria have come up with resistance mechanisms directed at every aspect of the bacteriophage life cycle. Most genes involved in phage resistance are carried by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements, ...

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Epigenetic dysregulation by nickel through repressive chromatin domain disruption [Systems Biology]

07-10-2014 | Cynthia C. Jose; Beisi Xu; Lakshmanan Jagannathan; Candi Trac; Ramya K. Mallela; Takamitsu Hattori; Darson Lai; Shoh ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Investigations into the genomic landscape of histone modifications in heterochromatic regions have revealed histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) to be important for differentiation and maintaining cell identity. H3K9me2 is associated with gene silencing and is organized into large ...

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Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors are required for normal expression of imprinted genes [Medical Sciences]

07-10-2014 | Jeremie Boucher; Marika Charalambous; Kim Zarse; Marcelo A. Mori; Andre Kleinridders; Michael Ristow; Anne C. Fergus ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In addition to signaling through the classical tyrosine kinase pathway, recent studies indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors (IGF1Rs) can emit signals in the unoccupied state through some yet-to-be-defined noncanonical pathways. Here we show that ...

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Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

07-10-2014 | Mengji Cao; Peng Du; Xianbing Wang; Yun-Qi Yu; Yan-Hong Qiu; Wanxiang Li; Amit Gal-On; Changyong Zhou; Yi Li; Shou-W ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an ...

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C-terminal domain small phosphatase 1 and MAP kinase reciprocally control REST stability and neuronal differentiation [Neuroscience]

16-09-2014 | Edmund Nesti; Glen M. Corson; Maxwell McCleskey; Jon A. Oyer; Gail Mandel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor (REST) in stem cells represses hundreds of genes essential to neuronal function. During neurogenesis, REST is degraded in neural progenitors to promote subsequent elaboration of a mature neuronal phenotype. Prior studies indicate that ...

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Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression to restrict RNA viral infection in Drosophila [Immunology and Inflammation]

16-09-2014 | Debasis Panda; Pau Pascual-Garcia; Margaret Dunagin; Matthew Tudor; Kaycie C. Hopkins; Jie Xu; Beth Gold; Arjun Raj; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are ...

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Comparative analysis of pseudogenes across three phyla [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16-09-2014 | Cristina Sisu; Baikang Pei; Jing Leng; Adam Frankish; Yan Zhang; Suganthi Balasubramanian; Rachel Harte; Daifeng Wan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Pseudogenes are degraded fossil copies of genes. Here, we report a comparison of pseudogenes spanning three phyla, leveraging the completed annotations of the human, worm, and fly genomes, which we make available as an online resource. We find that pseudogenes are lineage specific, much more so ...

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