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985 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Single-molecule analysis of RAG-mediated V(D)J DNA cleavage [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

07-Apr-2015 | Geoffrey A. Lovely; Robert C. Brewster; David G. Schatz; David Baltimore; Rob Phillips, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The recombination-activating gene products, RAG1 and RAG2, initiate V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development by cleaving DNA adjacent to conserved recombination signal sequences (RSSs). The reaction involves DNA binding, synapsis, and cleavage at two RSSs located on the same DNA molecule ...

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Candidate ionotropic taste receptors in the Drosophila larva [Neuroscience]

07-Apr-2015 | Shannon Stewart; Tong-Wey Koh; Arpan C. Ghosh; John R. Carlson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We examine in Drosophila a group of ∼35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), the IR20a clade, about which remarkably little is known. Of 28 genes analyzed, GAL4 drivers representing 11 showed expression in the larva. Eight drivers labeled neurons of the pharynx, a taste organ, and three labeled neurons of ...

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Coselected genes determine adaptive variation in herbivore resistance throughout the native range of Arabidopsis thaliana [Evolution]

31-Mar-2015 | Benjamin Brachi; Christopher G. Meyer; Romain Villoutreix; Alexander Platt; Timothy C. Morton; Fabrice Roux; Joy Ber ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The “mustard oil bomb” is a major defense mechanism in the Brassicaceae, which includes crops such as canola and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants produce and store blends of amino acid-derived secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Upon tissue rupture by natural enemies, ...

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STAT3-driven transcription depends upon the dimethylation of K49 by EZH2 [Cell Biology]

31-Mar-2015 | Maupali Dasgupta; Josephine Kam Tai Dermawan; Belinda Willard; George R. Stark, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Several transcription factors, including p53, NF-κB, and STAT3, are modified by the same enzymes that also modify histones, with important functional consequences. We have identified a previously unrecognized dimethylation of K49 of STAT3 that is crucial for the expression of many IL-6–dependent ...

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Synchronous down-modulation of miR-17 family members is an early causative event in the retinal angiogenic switch [Medical Sciences]

24-Mar-2015 | Diana N. Nunes; Emmanuel Dias-Neto; Marina Cardó-Vila; Julianna K. Edwards; Andrey S. Dobroff; Ricardo J. Giordano; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Six members of the microRNA-17 (miR-17) family were mapped to three different chromosomes, although they share the same seed sequence and are predicted to target common genes, among which are those encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) and VEGFA. Here, we evaluated the in vivo expression ...

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Extraordinary diversity of visual opsin genes in dragonflies [Evolution]

17-Mar-2015 | Ryo Futahashi; Ryouka Kawahara-Miki; Michiyo Kinoshita; Kazutoshi Yoshitake; Shunsuke Yajima; Kentaro Arikawa; Takem ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Dragonflies are colorful and large-eyed animals strongly dependent on color vision. Here we report an extraordinary large number of opsin genes in dragonflies and their characteristic spatiotemporal expression patterns. Exhaustive transcriptomic and genomic surveys of three dragonflies of the ...

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Rare variants in neuronal excitability genes influence risk for bipolar disorder [Systems Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Seth A. Ament; Szabolcs Szelinger; Gustavo Glusman; Justin Ashworth; Liping Hou; Nirmala Akula; Tatyana Shekhtman; J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We sequenced the genomes of 200 individuals from 41 families multiply affected with bipolar disorder (BD) to identify contributions of rare variants to genetic risk. We initially focused on 3,087 candidate genes with known synaptic functions or prior evidence from genome-wide association studies. ...

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Steric clashes with bound OMP peptides activate the DegS stress-response protease [Biochemistry]

17-Mar-2015 | Anna K. de Regt; Tania A. Baker; Robert T. Sauer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Escherichia coli senses envelope stress using a signaling cascade initiated when DegS cleaves a transmembrane inhibitor of a transcriptional activator for response genes. Each subunit of the DegS trimer contains a protease domain and a PDZ domain. During stress, unassembled outer-membrane ...

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Thioredoxin, a master regulator of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in plant mitochondria [Plant Biology]

17-Mar-2015 | Danilo M. Daloso; Karolin Müller; Toshihiro Obata; Alexandra Florian; Takayuki Tohge; Alexandra Bottcher; Christophe ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Plant mitochondria have a fully operational tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that plays a central role in generating ATP and providing carbon skeletons for a range of biosynthetic processes in both heterotrophic and photosynthetic tissues. The cycle enzyme-encoding genes have been well ...

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NF{kappa}B activation by modified vaccinia virus as a novel strategy to enhance neutrophil migration and HIV-specific T-cell responses [Microbiology]

17-Mar-2015 | Mauro Di Pilato; Ernesto Mejías-Pérez; Manuela Zonca; Beatriz Perdiguero; Carmen Elena Gómez; Marianna Trakala; Jaco ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Neutrophils are antigen-transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. We generated an attenuated VACV strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens but lacks ...

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