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1,038 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Small RNA-based feedforward loop with AND-gate logic regulates extrachromosomal DNA transfer in Salmonella [Microbiology]

25-Aug-2015 | Kai Papenfort; Elena Espinosa; Josep Casadesús; Jörg Vogel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation is a major driving force in microbial evolution but constitutes a complex process that requires synchronization with the physiological state of the host bacteria. Although several host transcription factors are known to regulate plasmid-borne ...

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Coexistence of Y, W, and Z sex chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis [Genetics]

25-Aug-2015 | Álvaro S. Roco; Allen W. Olmstead; Sigmund J. Degitz; Tosikazu Amano; Lyle B. Zimmerman; Mónica Bullejos, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Homomorphic sex chromosomes and rapid turnover of sex-determining genes can complicate establishing the sex chromosome system operating in a given species. This difficulty exists in Xenopus tropicalis, an anuran quickly becoming a relevant model for genetic, genomic, biochemical, and ...

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Correction for Lock et al., Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [Correction]

18-Aug-2015 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,” by Frances E. Lock, Rita Rebollo, Katharine Miceli-Royer, Liane Gagnier, Sabrina Kuah, Artem Babaian, Maialen Sistiaga-Poveda, C. Benjamin Lai, Oksana ...

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SufB intein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a sensor for oxidative and nitrosative stresses [Biochemistry]

18-Aug-2015 | Natalya I. Topilina; Cathleen M. Green; Pradeepa Jayachandran; Danielle S. Kelley; Matthew J. Stanger; Carol Lyn Pia ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Inteins are mobile genetic elements that self-splice at the protein level. Mycobacteria have inteins inserted into several important genes, including those corresponding to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein SufB. Curiously, the SufB inteins are found primarily in mycobacterial species that ...

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Roles of unphosphorylated ISGF3 in HCV infection and interferon responsiveness [Immunology and Inflammation]

18-Aug-2015 | Pil Soo Sung; HyeonJoo Cheon; Chung Hwan Cho; Seon-Hui Hong; Do Youn Park; Hyung-Il Seo; Su-Hyung Park; Seung Kew Yo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) is sustained in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected livers. Here, we investigated the mechanism of prolonged ISG expression and its role in IFN responsiveness during HCV infection in relation to unphosphorylated IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (U-ISGF3), ...

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Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes [Colloquium Paper]

18-Aug-2015 | Chuan Ku; Shijulal Nelson-Sathi; Mayo Roettger; Sriram Garg; Einat Hazkani-Covo; William F. Martin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Endosymbiotic theory in eukaryotic-cell evolution rests upon a foundation of three cornerstone partners—the plastid (a cyanobacterium), the mitochondrion (a proteobacterium), and its host (an archaeon)—and carries a corollary that, over time, the majority of genes once present in the organelle ...

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Genomic perspectives on the birth and spread of plastids [Colloquium Paper]

18-Aug-2015 | John M. Archibald, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The endosymbiotic origin of plastids from cyanobacteria was a landmark event in the history of eukaryotic life. Subsequent to the evolution of primary plastids, photosynthesis spread from red and green algae to unrelated eukaryotes by secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis. Although the movement of ...

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Generation of knock-in primary human T cells using Cas9 ribonucleoproteins [Immunology and Inflammation]

18-Aug-2015 | Kathrin Schumann; Steven Lin; Eric Boyer; Dimitre R. Simeonov; Meena Subramaniam; Rachel E. Gate; Genevieve E. Halib ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

T-cell genome engineering holds great promise for cell-based therapies for cancer, HIV, primary immune deficiencies, and autoimmune diseases, but genetic manipulation of human T cells has been challenging. Improved tools are needed to efficiently “knock out” genes and “knock in” targeted genome ...

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Mitochondrial genomes are retained by selective constraints on protein targeting [Colloquium Paper]

18-Aug-2015 | Patrik Björkholm; Ajith Harish; Erik Hagström; Andreas M. Ernst; Siv G. E. Andersson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells considered to be of bacterial origin. The mitochondrial genome has evolved under selection for minimization of gene content, yet it is not known why not all mitochondrial genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome. Here, we ...

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Ancient hot and cold genes and chemotherapy resistance emergence [Physics]

18-Aug-2015 | Amy Wu; Qiucen Zhang; Guillaume Lambert; Zayar Khin; Robert A. Gatenby; Hyunsung John Kim; Nader Pourmand; Kimberly ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We use a microfabricated ecology with a doxorubicin gradient and population fragmentation to produce a strong Darwinian selective pressure that drives forward the rapid emergence of doxorubicin resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells. RNA sequencing of the resistant cells was used to ...

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