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405 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

Sex determination by multiple sex chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis [Genetics]

25-Aug-2015 | Manfred Schartl, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sex determination shows a great diversity of mechanisms, ranging from temperature and other environmental cues to strict chromosomal control over this process. In the case of genetic sex determination, this variability is linked to a similarly high variation of sex chromosome differentiation. In ...

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Coexistence of Y, W, and Z sex chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis [Genetics]

25-Aug-2015 | Álvaro S. Roco; Allen W. Olmstead; Sigmund J. Degitz; Tosikazu Amano; Lyle B. Zimmerman; Mónica Bullejos, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Homomorphic sex chromosomes and rapid turnover of sex-determining genes can complicate establishing the sex chromosome system operating in a given species. This difficulty exists in Xenopus tropicalis, an anuran quickly becoming a relevant model for genetic, genomic, biochemical, and ...

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Epigenetic mechanisms, T-cell activation, and CCR5 genetics interact to regulate T-cell expression of CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor [Immunology and Inflammation]

25-Aug-2015 | German G. Gornalusse; Srinivas Mummidi; Alvaro A. Gaitan; Fabio Jimenez; Veron Ramsuran; Anabela Picton; Kristen Rog ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

T-cell expression levels of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) are a critical determinant of HIV/AIDS susceptibility, and manifest wide variations (i) between T-cell subsets and among individuals and (ii) in T-cell activation-induced increases in expression levels. We demonstrate that a unifying ...

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Ablation of XP-V gene causes adipose tissue senescence and metabolic abnormalities [Genetics]

18-Aug-2015 | Yih-Wen Chen; Robert A. Harris; Zafer Hatahet; Kai-ming Chou, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have evolved to be major health issues throughout the world. Whether loss of genome integrity contributes to this epidemic is an open question. DNA polymerase η (pol η), encoded by the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-V) gene, plays an essential role in preventing ...

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Genetic selection by high altitude: Beware of experiments at ambient conditions [Genetics]

18-Aug-2015 | Josef T. Prchal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Evolutionary Adaptation to Hypoxia The study of evolutionarily determined changes of the human genome and, in particular, the impact of extreme environments, has provided valuable information on human pathophysiology. The report by Stobdan et al. (1) is a nice demonstration of an evolutionary ...

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The genetics of human infertility by functional interrogation of SNPs in mice [Genetics]

18-Aug-2015 | Priti Singh; John C. Schimenti, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Infertility is a prevalent health issue, affecting ∼15% of couples of childbearing age. Nearly one-half of idiopathic infertility cases are thought to have a genetic basis, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. Traditional methods for studying inheritance, such as genome-wide association ...

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Endothelin receptor B, a candidate gene from human studies at high altitude, improves cardiac tolerance to hypoxia in genetically engineered heterozygote mice [Genetics]

18-Aug-2015 | Tsering Stobdan; Dan Zhou; Eilleen Ao-Ieong; Daniel Ortiz; Roy Ronen; Iain Hartley; Zhuohui Gan; Andrew D. McCulloch ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

To better understand human adaptation to stress, and in particular to hypoxia, we took advantage of one of nature’s experiments at high altitude (HA) and studied Ethiopians, a population that is well-adapted to HA hypoxic stress. Using whole-genome sequencing, we discovered that EDNRB (Endothelin ...

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Fork rotation and DNA precatenation are restricted during DNA replication to prevent chromosomal instability [Genetics]

18-Aug-2015 | Stephanie A. Schalbetter; Sahar Mansoubi; Anna L. Chambers; Jessica A. Downs; Jonathan Baxter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Faithful genome duplication and inheritance require the complete resolution of all intertwines within the parental DNA duplex. This is achieved by topoisomerase action ahead of the replication fork or by fork rotation and subsequent resolution of the DNA precatenation formed. Although fork ...

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RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

04-Aug-2015 | Mihwa Seo; Keunhee Seo; Wooseon Hwang; Hee Jung Koo; Jeong-Hoon Hahm; Jae-Seong Yang; Seong Kyu Han; Daehee Hwang; S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance ...

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Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by the TOR pathway [Genetics]

04-Aug-2015 | Carmen V. Jack; Cristina Cruz; Ryan M. Hull; Markus A. Keller; Markus Ralser; Jonathan Houseley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Repeated regions are widespread in eukaryotic genomes, and key functional elements such as the ribosomal DNA tend to be formed of high copy repeated sequences organized in tandem arrays. In general, high copy repeats are remarkably stable, but a number of organisms display rapid ribosomal DNA ...

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