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451 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

Human TLR10 is an anti-inflammatory pattern-recognition receptor [Immunology and Inflammation]

21-10-2014 | Marije Oosting; Shih-Chin Cheng; Judith M. Bolscher; Rachel Vestering-Stenger; Theo S. Plantinga; Ineke C. Verschuer ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Toll-like receptor (TLR)10 is the only pattern-recognition receptor without known ligand specificity and biological function. We demonstrate that TLR10 is a modulatory receptor with mainly inhibitory effects. Blocking TLR10 by antagonistic antibodies enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, ...

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Selection of the lamprey VLRC antigen receptor repertoire [Immunology and Inflammation]

14-10-2014 | Stephen J. Holland; Mingming Gao; Masayuki Hirano; Lakshminarayan M. Iyer; Ming Luo; Michael Schorpp; Max D. Cooper; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The alternative adaptive immune system of jawless vertebrates is based on different isotypes of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and expressed by distinct B- and T-like lymphocyte lineages. VLRB is expressed by B-like cells, whereas VLRA and ...

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Tsc1 promotes the differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells via orchestrating the transcriptional and metabolic programs [Immunology and Inflammation]

14-10-2014 | Sharad Shrestha; Kai Yang; Jun Wei; Peer W. F. Karmaus; Geoffrey Neale; Hongbo Chi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Memory CD8+ T cells are an essential component of protective immunity. Signaling via mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the regulation of the differentiation of effector and memory T cells. However, little is understood about the mechanisms that control mTOR activity, ...

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Disruption of the immune-checkpoint VISTA gene imparts a proinflammatory phenotype with predisposition to the development of autoimmunity [Immunology and Inflammation]

14-10-2014 | Li Wang; Isabelle Le Mercier; Juan Putra; Wenna Chen; Jun Liu; Austin D. Schenk; Elizabeth C. Nowak; Arief A. Suriaw ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator that suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses. Previous studies using a VISTA-neutralizing monoclonal antibody show that VISTA blockade enhances T-cell activation. The current study describes a ...

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Antigen affinity and antigen dose exert distinct influences on CD4 T-cell differentiation [Immunology and Inflammation]

14-10-2014 | Simone Keck; Mathias Schmaler; Stefan Ganter; Lena Wyss; Susanne Oberle; Eric S. Huseby; Dietmar Zehn; Carolyn G. King, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cumulative T-cell receptor signal strength and ensuing T-cell responses are affected by both antigen affinity and antigen dose. Here we examined the distinct contributions of these parameters to CD4 T-cell differentiation during infection. We found that high antigen affinity positively correlates ...

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Genomic donor cassette sharing during VLRA and VLRC assembly in jawless vertebrates [Immunology and Inflammation]

14-10-2014 | Sabyasachi Das; Jianxu Li; Stephen J. Holland; Lakshminarayan M. Iyer; Masayuki Hirano; Michael Schorpp; L. Aravind; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Lampreys possess two T-like lymphocyte lineages that express either variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) A or VLRC antigen receptors. VLRA+ and VLRC+ lymphocytes share many similarities with the two principal T-cell lineages of jawed vertebrates expressing the αβ and γδ T-cell receptors (TCRs). ...

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Enhanced natural killer-cell and T-cell responses to influenza A virus during pregnancy [Immunology and Inflammation]

07-10-2014 | Alexander W. Kay; Julia Fukuyama; Natali Aziz; Cornelia L. Dekker; Sally Mackey; Gary E. Swan; Mark M. Davis; Susan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Pregnant women experience increased morbidity and mortality after influenza infection, for reasons that are not understood. Although some data suggest that natural killer (NK)- and T-cell responses are suppressed during pregnancy, influenza-specific responses have not been previously evaluated. ...

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Two apextrin-like proteins mediate extracellular and intracellular bacterial recognition in amphioxus [Immunology and Inflammation]

16-09-2014 | Guangrui Huang; Shengfeng Huang; Xinyu Yan; Ping Yang; Jun Li; Weiya Xu; Lingling Zhang; Ruihua Wang; Yingcai Yu; Sh ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition ...

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Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression to restrict RNA viral infection in Drosophila [Immunology and Inflammation]

16-09-2014 | Debasis Panda; Pau Pascual-Garcia; Margaret Dunagin; Matthew Tudor; Kaycie C. Hopkins; Jie Xu; Beth Gold; Arjun Raj; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are ...

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Complement activation by ligand-driven juxtaposition of discrete pattern recognition complexes [Immunology and Inflammation]

16-09-2014 | Søren E. Degn; Troels R. Kjaer; Rune T. Kidmose; Lisbeth Jensen; Annette G. Hansen; Mustafa Tekin; Jens C. Jensenius ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Defining mechanisms governing translation of molecular binding events into immune activation is central to understanding immune function. In the lectin pathway of complement, the pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins complexed with the MBL-associated serine ...

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