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469 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

N2 gas is an effective fertilizer for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Timothy A. Kremer; Breah LaSarre; Amanda L. Posto; James B. McKinlay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A nascent cellulosic ethanol industry is struggling to become cost-competitive against corn ethanol and gasoline. Millions of dollars are spent on nitrogen supplements to make up for the low nitrogen content of the cellulosic feedstock. Here we show for the first time to our knowledge that the ...

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Age-related immune clearance of hepatitis B virus infection requires the establishment of gut microbiota [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Han-Hsuan Chou; Wei-Hung Chien; Li-Ling Wu; Chi-Hung Cheng; Chen-Han Chung; Jau-Haw Horng; Yen-Hsuan Ni; Hong-Tai Ts ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A unique feature of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in humans is that viral clearance heavily depends on the age of exposure. However, the reason for this remains unclear. Here we show that gut microbiota contribute to the age dependence of HBV immunity in a hydrodynamic transfection mouse ...

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An intermolecular electrostatic interaction controls the prepore-to-pore transition in a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Kristin R. Wade; Eileen M. Hotze; Michael J. Kuiper; Craig J. Morton; Michael W. Parker; Rodney K. Tweten, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

β-Barrel pore-forming toxins (βPFTs) form an obligatory oligomeric prepore intermediate before the formation of the β-barrel pore. The molecular components that control the critical prepore-to-pore transition remain unknown for βPFTs. Using the archetype βPFT perfringolysin O, we show that E183 ...

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An HD-domain phosphodiesterase mediates cooperative hydrolysis of c-di-AMP to affect bacterial growth and virulence [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | TuAnh Ngoc Huynh; Shukun Luo; Daniel Pensinger; John-Demian Sauer; Liang Tong; Joshua J. Woodward, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The nucleotide cyclic di-3′,5′- adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) was recently identified as an essential and widespread second messenger in bacterial signaling. Among c-di-AMP–producing bacteria, altered nucleotide levels result in several physiological defects and attenuated virulence. Thus, a ...

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Chemical proteomics reveals a second family of cyclic-di-AMP hydrolases [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | John D. Helmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cyclic-di-AMP is a relative newcomer to the large family of nucleotide-based signaling molecules, which notably includes cyclic-AMP, cyclic-di-GMP, and ppGpp(p) (1). Cyclic-di-AMP was first implicated as a possible signaling molecule when it was unexpectedly found bound to the active site of the ...

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TCF1 and LEF1 act as T-cell intrinsic HTLV-1 antagonists by targeting Tax [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Guangyong Ma; Jun-ichirou Yasunaga; Hirofumi Akari; Masao Matsuoka, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a delta-type retrovirus that induces malignant and inflammatory diseases during its long persistence in vivo. HTLV-1 can infect various kinds of cells; however, HTLV-1 provirus is predominantly found in peripheral CD4 T cells in vivo. Here we find ...

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Novel mixed-linkage {beta}-glucan activated by c-di-GMP in Sinorhizobium meliloti [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Daniel Pérez-Mendoza; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Carvajal; Lorena Romero-Jiménez; Gabriela de Araujo Farias; Javier Llor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

An artificial increase of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) levels in Sinorhizobium meliloti 8530, a bacterium that does not carry known cellulose synthesis genes, leads to overproduction of a substance that binds the dyes Congo red and calcofluor. Sugar composition and methylation analyses and NMR ...

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Noncanonical coproporphyrin-dependent bacterial heme biosynthesis pathway that does not use protoporphyrin [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Harry A. Dailey; Svetlana Gerdes; Tamara A. Dailey; Joseph S. Burch; John D. Phillips, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

It has been generally accepted that biosynthesis of protoheme (heme) uses a common set of core metabolic intermediates that includes protoporphyrin. Herein, we show that the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (high-GC and low-GC Gram-positive bacteria) are unable to synthesize protoporphyrin. Instead, ...

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Characterization of nonprimate hepacivirus and construction of a functional molecular clone [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Troels K. H. Scheel; Amit Kapoor; Eiko Nishiuchi; Kenny V. Brock; Yingpu Yu; Linda Andrus; Meigang Gu; Randall W. Re ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) is the closest known relative of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its study could enrich our understanding of HCV evolution, immunity, and pathogenesis. High seropositivity is found in horses worldwide with ∼3% viremic. NPHV natural history and molecular virology remain ...

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Nostopeptolide plays a governing role during cellular differentiation of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme [Microbiology]

10-Feb-2015 | Anton Liaimer; Eric J. N. Helfrich; Katrin Hinrichs; Arthur Guljamow; Keishi Ishida; Christian Hertweck; Elke Dittmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Nostoc punctiforme is a versatile cyanobacterium that can live either independently or in symbiosis with plants from distinct taxa. Chemical cues from plants and N. punctiforme were shown to stimulate or repress, respectively, the differentiation of infectious motile filaments known as ...

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