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484 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Origin of the HIV-1 group O epidemic in western lowland gorillas [Microbiology]

17-Mar-2015 | Mirela D’arc; Ahidjo Ayouba; Amandine Esteban; Gerald H. Learn; Vanina Boué; Florian Liegeois; Lucie Etienne; Nikki ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

HIV-1, the cause of AIDS, is composed of four phylogenetic lineages, groups M, N, O, and P, each of which resulted from an independent cross-species transmission event of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting African apes. Although groups M and N have been traced to geographically ...

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Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector [Microbiology]

10-Mar-2015 | Katelyn O’Neill; Bradley J. S. C. Olson; Ning Huang; Dave Unis; Rollie J. Clem, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors ...

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MinD-like ATPase FlhG effects location and number of bacterial flagella during C-ring assembly [Microbiology]

10-Mar-2015 | Jan S. Schuhmacher; Florian Rossmann; Felix Dempwolff; Carina Knauer; Florian Altegoer; Wieland Steinchen; Anja K. D ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The number and location of flagella, bacterial organelles of locomotion, are species specific and appear in regular patterns that represent one of the earliest taxonomic criteria in microbiology. However, the mechanisms that reproducibly establish these patterns during each round of cell division ...

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Dysregulation of Escherichia coli {alpha}-hemolysin expression alters the course of acute and persistent urinary tract infection [Microbiology]

24-Feb-2015 | Kanna Nagamatsu; Thomas J. Hannan; Randi L. Guest; Maria Kostakioti; Maria Hadjifrangiskou; Jana Binkley; Karen Dods ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections, causing considerable morbidity in females. Infection is highly recurrent despite appropriate antibiotic treatment. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common causative agent of UTIs, invades bladder ...

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N2 gas is an effective fertilizer for bioethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Timothy A. Kremer; Breah LaSarre; Amanda L. Posto; James B. McKinlay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A nascent cellulosic ethanol industry is struggling to become cost-competitive against corn ethanol and gasoline. Millions of dollars are spent on nitrogen supplements to make up for the low nitrogen content of the cellulosic feedstock. Here we show for the first time to our knowledge that the ...

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Age-related immune clearance of hepatitis B virus infection requires the establishment of gut microbiota [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Han-Hsuan Chou; Wei-Hung Chien; Li-Ling Wu; Chi-Hung Cheng; Chen-Han Chung; Jau-Haw Horng; Yen-Hsuan Ni; Hong-Tai Ts ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A unique feature of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in humans is that viral clearance heavily depends on the age of exposure. However, the reason for this remains unclear. Here we show that gut microbiota contribute to the age dependence of HBV immunity in a hydrodynamic transfection mouse ...

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An intermolecular electrostatic interaction controls the prepore-to-pore transition in a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Kristin R. Wade; Eileen M. Hotze; Michael J. Kuiper; Craig J. Morton; Michael W. Parker; Rodney K. Tweten, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

β-Barrel pore-forming toxins (βPFTs) form an obligatory oligomeric prepore intermediate before the formation of the β-barrel pore. The molecular components that control the critical prepore-to-pore transition remain unknown for βPFTs. Using the archetype βPFT perfringolysin O, we show that E183 ...

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An HD-domain phosphodiesterase mediates cooperative hydrolysis of c-di-AMP to affect bacterial growth and virulence [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | TuAnh Ngoc Huynh; Shukun Luo; Daniel Pensinger; John-Demian Sauer; Liang Tong; Joshua J. Woodward, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The nucleotide cyclic di-3′,5′- adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) was recently identified as an essential and widespread second messenger in bacterial signaling. Among c-di-AMP–producing bacteria, altered nucleotide levels result in several physiological defects and attenuated virulence. Thus, a ...

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Chemical proteomics reveals a second family of cyclic-di-AMP hydrolases [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | John D. Helmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cyclic-di-AMP is a relative newcomer to the large family of nucleotide-based signaling molecules, which notably includes cyclic-AMP, cyclic-di-GMP, and ppGpp(p) (1). Cyclic-di-AMP was first implicated as a possible signaling molecule when it was unexpectedly found bound to the active site of the ...

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TCF1 and LEF1 act as T-cell intrinsic HTLV-1 antagonists by targeting Tax [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Guangyong Ma; Jun-ichirou Yasunaga; Hirofumi Akari; Masao Matsuoka, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a delta-type retrovirus that induces malignant and inflammatory diseases during its long persistence in vivo. HTLV-1 can infect various kinds of cells; however, HTLV-1 provirus is predominantly found in peripheral CD4 T cells in vivo. Here we find ...

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