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428 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Novel coding, translation, and gene expression of a replicating covalently closed circular RNA of 220 nt [Microbiology]

07-10-2014 | Mounir Georges AbouHaidar; Srividhya Venkataraman; Ashkan Golshani; Bolin Liu; Tauqeer Ahmad, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The highly structured (64% GC) covalently closed circular (CCC) RNA (220 nt) of the virusoid associated with rice yellow mottle virus codes for a 16-kDa highly basic protein using novel modalities for coding, translation, and gene expression. This CCC RNA is the smallest among all known viroids ...

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Noncanonical SMC protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis restricts maintenance of Mycobacterium fortuitum plasmids [Microbiology]

16-09-2014 | Michael W. Panas; Paras Jain; Hui Yang; Shimontini Mitra; Debasis Biswas; Alice Rebecca Wattam; Norman L. Letvin; Wi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Research on tuberculosis and leprosy was revolutionized by the development of a plasmid transformation system in the fast-growing surrogate, Mycobacterium smegmatis. This transformation system was made possible by the successful isolation of a M. smegmatis mutant strain mc2155, whose efficient ...

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One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities [Microbiology]

16-09-2014 | Lorenzo Subissi; Clara C. Posthuma; Axelle Collet; Jessika C. Zevenhoven-Dobbe; Alexander E. Gorbalenya; Etienne Dec ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes ...

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Conformational change in the periplamic region of the flagellar stator coupled with the assembly around the rotor [Microbiology]

16-09-2014 | Shiwei Zhu; Masato Takao; Na Li; Mayuko Sakuma; Yuuki Nishino; Michio Homma; Seiji Kojima; Katsumi Imada, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The torque of the bacterial flagellum is generated by the rotor–stator interaction coupled with the ion flow through the channel in the stator. Anchoring the stator unit to the peptidoglycan layer with proper orientation around the rotor is believed to be essential for smooth rotation of the ...

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Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces [Microbiology]

16-09-2014 | Michael Ionescu; Paulo A. Zaini; Clelia Baccari; Sophia Tran; Aline M. da Silva; Steven E. Lindow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as ...

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Efficient replication of a paramyxovirus independent of full zippering of the fusion protein six-helix bundle domain [Microbiology]

09-09-2014 | Melinda A. Brindley; Philippe Plattet; Richard Karl Plemper, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Enveloped viruses such as HIV and members of the paramyxovirus family use metastable, proteinaceous fusion machineries to merge the viral envelope with cellular membranes for infection. A hallmark of the fusogenic glycoproteins of these pathogens is refolding into a thermodynamically highly ...

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Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome [Microbiology]

09-09-2014 | Kan Fujino; Masayuki Horie; Tomoyuki Honda; Dana K. Merriman; Keizo Tomonaga, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous ...

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Enterotoxicity of a nonribosomal peptide causes antibiotic-associated colitis [Microbiology]

09-09-2014 | Georg Schneditz; Jana Rentner; Sandro Roier; Jakob Pletz; Kathrin A. T. Herzog; Roland Bücker; Hanno Troeger; Stefan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Antibiotic therapy disrupts the human intestinal microbiota. In some patients rapid overgrowth of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca results in antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). We isolated and identified a toxin produced by K. oxytoca as the pyrrolobenzodiazepine ...

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Attenuation of human respiratory syncytial virus by genome-scale codon-pair deoptimization [Microbiology]

09-09-2014 | Cyril Le Nouën; Linda G. Brock; Cindy Luongo; Thomas McCarty; Lijuan Yang; Masfique Mehedi; Eckard Wimmer; Steffen M ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of serious pediatric respiratory-tract disease worldwide. A vaccine or generally effective antiviral drug is not yet available. We designed new live attenuated RSV vaccine candidates by codon-pair deoptimization (CPD). ...

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Efficient utilization of complex N-linked glycans is a selective advantage for Bacteroides fragilis in extraintestinal infections [Microbiology]

02-09-2014 | Yanlu Cao; Edson R. Rocha; C. Jeffrey Smith, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Bacteroides fragilis is the most common anaerobe isolated from clinical infections, and in this report we demonstrate a characteristic of the species that is critical to their success as an opportunistic pathogen. Among the Bacteroides spp. in the gut, B. fragilis has the unique ability of ...

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