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632 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

HERV-K HML-2 diversity among humans [Microbiology]

19-Apr-2016 | Jack Lenz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Retroviruses comprise over 8% of the human genome (1, 2). Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) exist as DNA remnants of infections that occurred in germ lineage cells of our ancestors. Most of this viral DNA is mutated, often including various large disruptions, but some components are intact or ...

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Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations [Microbiology]

19-Apr-2016 | Julia Halo Wildschutte; Zachary H. Williams; Meagan Montesion; Ravi P. Subramanian; Jeffrey M. Kidd; John M. Coffin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently ...

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Output-driven feedback system control platform optimizes combinatorial therapy of tuberculosis using a macrophage cell culture model [Microbiology]

12-Apr-2016 | Aleidy Silva; Bai-Yu Lee; Daniel L. Clemens; Theodore Kee; Xianting Ding; Chih-Ming Ho; Marcus A. Horwitz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem, and improved treatments are needed to shorten duration of therapy, decrease disease burden, improve compliance, and combat emergence of drug resistance. Ideally, the most effective regimen would be identified by a systematic and ...

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Three-dimensional architecture of Vibrio cholera biofilms [Microbiology]

05-Apr-2016 | Gerard C. L. Wong, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Microbes That Are out of Place Inspired by Lord Chesterfield, anthropologist Mary Douglas noted that what is classified as dirt in a given society is matter that is considered out of place. From this premise, Douglas went on to an analysis of ritual and religion, interrelations between ...

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Architectural transitions in Vibrio cholerae biofilms at single-cell resolution [Microbiology]

05-Apr-2016 | Knut Drescher; Jörn Dunkel; Carey D. Nadell; Sven van Teeffelen; Ivan Grnja; Ned S. Wingreen; Howard A. Stone; Bonni ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Many bacterial species colonize surfaces and form dense 3D structures, known as biofilms, which are highly tolerant to antibiotics and constitute one of the major forms of bacterial biomass on Earth. Bacterial biofilms display remarkable changes during their development from initial attachment to ...

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Bacteroides fragilis type VI secretion systems use novel effector and immunity proteins to antagonize human gut Bacteroidales species [Microbiology]

29-Mar-2016 | Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis; Naama Geva-Zatorsky; Laurie E. Comstock, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are multiprotein complexes best studied in Gram-negative pathogens where they have been shown to inhibit or kill prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and are often important for virulence. We recently showed that T6SS loci are also widespread in symbiotic human gut ...

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Human symbionts inject and neutralize antibacterial toxins to persist in the gut [Microbiology]

29-Mar-2016 | Aaron G. Wexler; Yiqiao Bao; John C. Whitney; Louis-Marie Bobay; Joao B. Xavier; Whitman B. Schofield; Natasha A. Ba ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The human gut microbiome is a dynamic and densely populated microbial community that can provide important benefits to its host. Cooperation and competition for nutrients among its constituents only partially explain community composition and interpersonal variation. Notably, certain ...

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Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator [Microbiology]

29-Mar-2016 | Katsumi Imada; Tohru Minamino; Yumiko Uchida; Miki Kinoshita; Keiichi Namba, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar ...

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Diverse high-torque bacterial flagellar motors assemble wider stator rings using a conserved protein scaffold [Microbiology]

29-Mar-2016 | Morgan Beeby; Deborah A. Ribardo; Caitlin A. Brennan; Edward G. Ruby; Grant J. Jensen; David R. Hendrixson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Although it is known that diverse bacterial flagellar motors produce different torques, the mechanism underlying torque variation is unknown. To understand this difference better, we combined genetic analyses with electron cryo-tomography subtomogram averaging to determine in situ structures of ...

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Viral serine palmitoyltransferase induces metabolic switch in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is required for infection of a marine alga [Microbiology]

29-Mar-2016 | Carmit Ziv; Sergey Malitsky; Alaa Othman; Shifra Ben-Dor; Yu Wei; Shuning Zheng; Asaph Aharoni; Thorsten Hornemann; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Marine viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans shaping community structure and nutrient cycling. The interaction between the bloom-forming alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific large dsDNA virus (EhV) is a major factor determining the fate of carbon in the ocean, thus ...

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