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1,044 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

Disruption of hierarchical predictive coding during sleep [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Melanie Strauss; Jacobo D. Sitt; Jean-Remi King; Maxime Elbaz; Leila Azizi; Marco Buiatti; Lionel Naccache; Virginie ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

When presented with an auditory sequence, the brain acts as a predictive-coding device that extracts regularities in the transition probabilities between sounds and detects unexpected deviations from these regularities. Does such prediction require conscious vigilance, or does it continue to ...

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KCC2 activity is critical in limiting the onset and severity of status epilepticus [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Liliya Silayeva; Tarek Z. Deeb; Rochelle M. Hines; Matt R. Kelley; Michaelanne B. Munoz; Henry H. C. Lee; Nicholas J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The K+/Cl– cotransporter (KCC2) allows adult neurons to maintain low intracellular Cl– levels, which are a prerequisite for efficient synaptic inhibition upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Deficits in KCC2 activity are implicated in epileptogenesis, but how increased neuronal ...

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Modeling memory consolidation during posttraining periods in cerebellovestibular learning [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Tadashi Yamazaki; Soichi Nagao; William Lennon; Shigeru Tanaka, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber–Purkinje cell (PF–PC) synapses is thought to underlie memory formation in cerebellar motor learning. Recent experimental results, however, suggest that multiple plasticity mechanisms in the cerebellar cortex and cerebellar/vestibular nuclei participate ...

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Up-regulation of lysosomal TRPML1 channels is essential for lysosomal adaptation to nutrient starvation [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Wuyang Wang; Qiong Gao; Meimei Yang; Xiaoli Zhang; Lu Yu; Maria Lawas; Xinran Li; Marthe Bryant-Genevier; Noel T. So ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Upon nutrient starvation, autophagy digests unwanted cellular components to generate catabolites that are required for housekeeping biosynthesis processes. A complete execution of autophagy demands an enhancement in lysosome function and biogenesis to match the increase in autophagosome ...

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Cortical computation in mammals and birds [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Kenneth D. Harris, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We humans are particularly proud of our cortices. Our brains are bigger than they should be, given our body size; furthermore, our neocortices constitute a larger fraction of the brain than in all other mammals, and our cortices probably contain more neurons than those of any other species on ...

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Coding principles of the canonical cortical microcircuit in the avian brain [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Ana Calabrese; Sarah M. N. Woolley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Mammalian neocortex is characterized by a layered architecture and a common or “canonical” microcircuit governing information flow among layers. This microcircuit is thought to underlie the computations required for complex behavior. Despite the absence of a six-layered cortex, birds are capable ...

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Cortically projecting basal forebrain parvalbumin neurons regulate cortical gamma band oscillations [Neuroscience]

17-Mar-2015 | Tae Kim; Stephen Thankachan; James T. McKenna; James M. McNally; Chun Yang; Jee Hyun Choi; Lichao Chen; Bernat Kocsi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cortical gamma band oscillations (GBO, 30–80 Hz, typically ∼40 Hz) are involved in higher cognitive functions such as feature binding, attention, and working memory. GBO abnormalities are a feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysfunction of cortical fast-spiking ...

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How to divide and conquer the world, one step at a time [Neuroscience]

10-Mar-2015 | Reka Daniel; Nicolas W. Schuck; Yael Niv, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Many human everyday decisions are parts of plans to reach a higher-level goal; unfortunately, the computational cost of planning increases steeply with the length of the sequence to be planned. So how do we manage to plan, often near optimally, given the limited capacity of our brains? In PNAS, ...

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Interplay of approximate planning strategies [Neuroscience]

10-Mar-2015 | Quentin J. M. Huys; Níall Lally; Paul Faulkner; Neir Eshel; Erich Seifritz; Samuel J. Gershman; Peter Dayan; Jonatha ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and ...

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Oxytocin prevents ethanol actions at {delta} subunit-containing GABAA receptors and attenuates ethanol-induced motor impairment in rats [Neuroscience]

10-Mar-2015 | Michael T. Bowen; Sebastian T. Peters; Nathan Absalom; Mary Chebib; Inga D. Neumann; Iain S. McGregor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Even moderate doses of alcohol cause considerable impairment of motor coordination, an effect that substantially involves potentiation of GABAergic activity at δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors (δ-GABAARs). Here, we demonstrate that oxytocin selectively attenuates ethanol-induced motor ...

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