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1,101 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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matching the following criteria

Reconstructing the neuronal milieu interieur [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Frederick J. Livesey, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The resurgence of interest in in vitro human neurobiology, largely driven by advances in stem cell biology, has focused attention on the practical problem of the care and feeding of neurons ex vivo. We now have the ability to generate multiple distinct neuronal cell types, as well as glial ...

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Connectivity reveals relationship of brain areas for reward-guided learning and decision making in human and monkey frontal cortex [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Franz-Xaver Neubert; Rogier B. Mars; Jérôme Sallet; Matthew F. S. Rushworth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Reward-guided decision-making depends on a network of brain regions. Among these are the orbitofrontal and the anterior cingulate cortex. However, it is difficult to ascertain if these areas constitute anatomical and functional unities, and how these areas correspond between monkeys and humans. ...

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The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Monica Mazzolini; Giuseppe Facchetti; Laura Andolfi; Remo Proietti Zaccaria; Salvatore Tuccio; Johannes Treu; Claudi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Rod photoreceptors consist of an outer segment (OS) and an inner segment. Inside the OS a biochemical machinery transforms the rhodopsin photoisomerization into electrical signal. This machinery has been treated as and is thought to be homogenous with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this ...

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Specialization and integration of functional thalamocortical connectivity in the human infant [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Hilary Toulmin; Christian F. Beckmann; Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh; Gareth Ball; Pumza Nongena; Antonios Makropoulos; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Connections between the thalamus and cortex develop rapidly before birth, and aberrant cerebral maturation during this period may underlie a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. To define functional thalamocortical connectivity at the normal time of birth, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to ...

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Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Cedric Bardy; Mark van den Hurk; Tameji Eames; Cynthia Marchand; Ruben V. Hernandez; Mariko Kellogg; Mark Gorris; Be ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely ...

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Stable long-range interhemispheric coordination is supported by direct anatomical projections [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Kelly Shen; Bratislav Mišić; Ben N. Cipollini; Gleb Bezgin; Martin Buschkuehl; R. Matthew Hutchison; Susanne M. Jaeg ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The functional interaction between the brain’s two hemispheres includes a unique set of connections between corresponding regions in opposite hemispheres (i.e., homotopic regions) that are consistently reported to be exceptionally strong compared with other interhemispheric (i.e., heterotopic) ...

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Self-motion perception in autism is compromised by visual noise but integrated optimally across multiple senses [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Adam Zaidel; Robin P. Goin-Kochel; Dora E. Angelaki, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Perceptual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by superior low-level task performance and inferior complex-task performance. This observation has led to theories of defective integration in ASD of local parts into a global percept. Despite mixed experimental results, this ...

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Histamine in the basolateral amygdala promotes inhibitory avoidance learning independently of hippocampus [Neuroscience]

12-May-2015 | Fernando Benetti; Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini; Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw; Gustavo Provensi; Maria Beatrice Pass ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Recent discoveries demonstrated that recruitment of alternative brain circuits permits compensation of memory impairments following damage to brain regions specialized in integrating and/or storing specific memories, including both dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Here, we first ...

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Functional connectivity arises from a slow rhythmic mechanism [Neuroscience]

12-May-2015 | Jingfeng M. Li; William J. Bentley; Abraham Z. Snyder; Marcus E. Raichle; Lawrence H. Snyder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The mechanism underlying temporal correlations among blood oxygen level-dependent signals is unclear. We used oxygen polarography to better characterize oxygen fluctuations and their correlation and to gain insight into the driving mechanism. The power spectrum of local oxygen fluctuations is ...

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Synaptic abnormalities and cytoplasmic glutamate receptor aggregates in contactin associated protein-like 2/Caspr2 knockout neurons [Neuroscience]

12-May-2015 | Olga Varea; Maria Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra; Katherine J. Kopeikina; Britta Schürmann; Hunter J. Fleming; Jessica M ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Central glutamatergic synapses and the molecular pathways that control them are emerging as common substrates in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. Genetic variation in the contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene, including copy number variations, exon deletions, truncations, single ...

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