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964 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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A common brain network links development, aging, and vulnerability to disease [Neuroscience]

09-12-2014 | Gwenaëlle Douaud; Adrian R. Groves; Christian K. Tamnes; Lars Tjelta Westlye; Eugene P. Duff; Andreas Engvig; Kristi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Several theories link processes of development and aging in humans. In neuroscience, one model posits for instance that healthy age-related brain degeneration mirrors development, with the areas of the brain thought to develop later also degenerating earlier. However, intrinsic evidence for such ...

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Brain-machine interface for eye movements [Neuroscience]

09-12-2014 | Arnulf B. A. Graf; Richard A. Andersen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A number of studies in tetraplegic humans and healthy nonhuman primates (NHPs) have shown that neuronal activity from reach-related cortical areas can be used to predict reach intentions using brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) and therefore assist tetraplegic patients by controlling external ...

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Modeling local and cross-species neuron number variations in the cerebral cortex as arising from a common mechanism [Neuroscience]

09-12-2014 | Diarmuid J. Cahalane; Christine J. Charvet; Barbara L. Finlay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A massive increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, driving its size to increase by five orders of magnitude, is a key feature of mammalian evolution. Not only are there systematic variations in cerebral cortical architecture across species, but also across spatial axes within a ...

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Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging [Neuroscience]

09-12-2014 | Alireza Salami; Sara Pudas; Lars Nyberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The brain is not idle during rest. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have identified several resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN), which contains a set of cortical regions that interact with a hippocampus (HC) subsystem. Age-related alterations in the functional ...

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Network dynamics of the brain and influence of the epileptic seizure onset zone [Neuroscience]

09-12-2014 | Samuel P. Burns; Sabato Santaniello; Robert B. Yaffe; Christophe C. Jouny; Nathan E. Crone; Gregory K. Bergey; Willi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The human brain is a dynamic networked system. Patients with partial epileptic seizures have focal regions that periodically diverge from normal brain network dynamics during seizures. We studied the evolution of brain connectivity before, during, and after seizures with graph-theoretic ...

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{alpha}2A adrenergic receptor promotes amyloidogenesis through disrupting APP-SorLA interaction [Neuroscience]

02-12-2014 | Yunjia Chen; Yin Peng; Pulin Che; Mary Gannon; Yin Liu; Ling Li; Guojun Bu; Thomas van Groen; Kai Jiao; Qin Wang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is the key pathogenic factor driving Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Endocytic sorting of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mediated by the vacuolar protein sorting (Vps10) family of receptors plays a decisive role in controlling the outcome of APP ...

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Topoisomerase 1 inhibition reversibly impairs synaptic function [Neuroscience]

02-12-2014 | Angela M. Mabb; Paul H. M. Kullmann; Margaret A. Twomey; Jayalakshmi Miriyala; Benjamin D. Philpot; Mark J. Zylka, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Topotecan is a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor that is used to treat various forms of cancer. We recently found that topotecan reduces the expression of multiple long genes, including many neuronal genes linked to synapses and autism. However, whether topotecan alters synaptic protein levels and ...

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High-throughput optical quantification of mechanosensory habituation reveals neurons encoding memory in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

02-12-2014 | Takuma Sugi; Yasuko Ohtani; Yuta Kumiya; Ryuji Igarashi; Masahiro Shirakawa, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A major goal of neuroscience studies is to identify the neurons and molecules responsible for memory. Mechanosensory habituation in Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple form of learning and memory, in which a circuit of several sensory neurons and interneurons governs behavior. However, despite the ...

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The vertical occipital fasciculus: A century of controversy resolved by in vivo measurements [Neuroscience]

02-12-2014 | Jason D. Yeatman; Kevin S. Weiner; Franco Pestilli; Ariel Rokem; Aviv Mezer; Brian A. Wandell, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF) is the only major fiber bundle connecting dorsolateral and ventrolateral visual cortex. Only a handful of studies have examined the anatomy of the VOF or its role in cognition in the living human brain. Here, we trace the contentious history of the VOF, ...

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Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain [Neuroscience]

25-11-2014 | Francesca M. Filbey; Sina Aslan; Vince D. Calhoun; Jeffrey S. Spence; Eswar Damaraju; Arvind Caprihan; Judith Segall, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume ...

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