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309 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Ether lipid generating enzyme AGPS alters the balance of structural and signaling lipids to fuel cancer pathogenicity [Biochemistry]

10-09-2013 | Daniel I. Benjamin; Alyssa Cozzo; Xiaodan Ji; Lindsay S. Roberts; Sharon M. Louie; Melinda M. Mulvihill; Kunxin Luo; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Aberrant lipid metabolism is an established hallmark of cancer cells. In particular, ether lipid levels have been shown to be elevated in tumors, but their specific function in cancer remains elusive. We show here that the metabolic enzyme alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), a critical step ...

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Biochemical analysis of a multifunctional cytochrome P450 (CYP51) enzyme required for synthesis of antimicrobial triterpenes in plants [Plant Biology]

27-08-2013 | Katrin Geisler; Richard K. Hughes; Frank Sainsbury; George P. Lomonossoff; Martin Rejzek; Shirley Fairhurst; Carl-Er ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Members of the cytochromes P450 superfamily (P450s) catalyze a huge variety of oxidation reactions in microbes and higher organisms. Most P450 families are highly divergent, but in contrast the cytochrome P450 14α-sterol demethylase (CYP51) family is one of the most ancient and conserved, ...

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Deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis and destruction regulate the replication of both cell and virus genomes [Cell Biology]

27-08-2013 | Bruce Stillman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Biochemical reactions, even those as complex as replicating the DNA genome of cells, follow the principle that the process is regulated by both the substrate concentration and by the enzymes that mediate the process. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), the substrates for DNA polymerizing ...

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A high-throughput screen for quorum-sensing inhibitors that target acyl-homoserine lactone synthases [Biochemistry]

20-08-2013 | Quin H. Christensen; Tyler L. Grove; Squire J. Booker; E. Peter Greenberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Many Proteobacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing to control specific genes. Acyl-HSL synthesis requires unique enzymes that use S-adenosyl methionine as an acyl acceptor and amino acid donor. We developed and executed an enzyme-coupled high-throughput cell-free screen ...

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Neuronal prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP3 mediates antinociception during inflammation [Neuroscience]

13-08-2013 | Gabriel Natura; Karl-Jürgen Bär; Annett Eitner; Michael K. Boettger; Frank Richter; Susanne Hensellek; Andrea Ebersb ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The pain mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) sensitizes nociceptive pathways through EP2 and EP4 receptors, which are coupled to Gs proteins and increase cAMP. However, PGE2 also activates EP3 receptors, and the major signaling pathway of the EP3 receptor splice variants uses inhibition of cAMP ...

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Saturated and unsaturated fat induce hepatic insulin resistance independently of TLR-4 signaling and ceramide synthesis in vivo [Medical Sciences]

30-07-2013 | Thomas Galbo; Rachel J. Perry; Michael J. Jurczak; João-Paulo G. Camporez‎; Tiago C. Alves; Mario Kahn; Blas A. Guig ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Hepatic insulin resistance is a principal component of type 2 diabetes, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for its pathogenesis remain unknown. Recent studies have suggested that saturated fatty acids induce hepatic insulin resistance through activation of the toll-like ...

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Spatiotemporal control and superselectivity in supramolecular polymers using multivalency [Chemistry]

23-07-2013 | Lorenzo Albertazzi; Francisco J. Martinez-Veracoechea; Christianus M. A. Leenders; Ilja K. Voets; Daan Frenkel; E. W ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Multivalency has an important but poorly understood role in molecular self-organization. We present the noncovalent synthesis of a multicomponent supramolecular polymer in which chemically distinct monomers spontaneously coassemble into a dynamic, functional structure. We show that a multivalent ...

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Solid-phase peptide synthesis and solid-phase fragment coupling mediated by isonitriles [Chemistry]

16-07-2013 | Ting Wang; Samuel J. Danishefsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The synthesis of polypeptides on solid phase via mediation by isonitriles is described. The acyl donor is a thioacid, which presumably reacts with the isonitrile to generate a thio-formimidate carboxylate mixed anhydride intermediate. Applications of this chemistry to reiterative solid-phase ...

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Fate of the replisome following arrest by UV-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli [Cell Biology]

09-07-2013 | H. Arthur Jeiranian; Brandy J. Schalow; Charmain T. Courcelle; Justin Courcelle, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Accurate replication in the presence of DNA damage is essential to genome stability and viability in all cells. In Escherichia coli, DNA replication forks blocked by UV-induced damage undergo a partial resection and RecF-catalyzed regression before synthesis resumes. These processing events ...

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Pattern recognition analysis in complex molecule synthesis and the preparation of iso-Diels-Alder motifs [Chemistry]

02-07-2013 | Feng Peng; Robin E. Grote; Rebecca M. Wilson; Samuel J. Danishefsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The identification of synthesizable substructural domains within more complex structural targets is of significant value in designing a workable plan of synthesis. We term this process “pattern recognition analysis” (PRA). In this paper we continued to build on the theme of PRA as a potential ...

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