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343 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Nonsense suppression by near-cognate tRNAs employs alternative base pairing at codon positions 1 and 3 [Genetics]

10-Mar-2015 | Bijoyita Roy; John D. Leszyk; David A. Mangus; Allan Jacobson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Premature termination codons (PTCs) in an mRNA ORF inactivate gene function by causing production of a truncated protein and destabilization of the mRNA. Readthrough of a PTC allows ribosomal A-site insertion of a near-cognate tRNA, leading to synthesis of a full-length protein from otherwise ...

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RING finger protein 121 facilitates the degradation and membrane localization of voltage-gated sodium channels [Neuroscience]

03-Mar-2015 | Kazutoyo Ogino; Sean E. Low; Kenta Yamada; Louis Saint-Amant; Weibin Zhou; Akira Muto; Kazuhide Asakawa; Junichi Nak ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters ...

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In vitro reconstitution of indolmycin biosynthesis reveals the molecular basis of oxazolinone assembly [Biochemistry]

03-Mar-2015 | Yi-Ling Du; Lona M. Alkhalaf; Katherine S. Ryan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The bacterial tryptophanyl–tRNA synthetase inhibitor indolmycin features a unique oxazolinone heterocycle whose biogenetic origins have remained obscure for over 50 years. Here we identify and characterize the indolmycin biosynthetic pathway, using systematic in vivo gene inactivation, in vitro ...

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Greedy scheduling of cellular self-replication leads to optimal doubling times with a log-Frechet distribution [Physics]

24-Feb-2015 | Rami Pugatch, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Bacterial self-replication is a complex process composed of many de novo synthesis steps catalyzed by a myriad of molecular processing units, e.g., the transcription–translation machinery, metabolic enzymes, and the replisome. Successful completion of all production tasks requires a schedule—a ...

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Heavy-chain receptor editing: Unbound [Immunology and Inflammation]

24-Feb-2015 | Garnett Kelsoe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

With all of the certainty of death and taxes, questions regarding the mechanisms of immunological tolerance remain fixtures across the landscape of immunology. From Paul Ehlirch’s “horror autotoxicus” (reviewed in ref. 1) to the current synthesis of tolerance by apoptosis, anergy, and receptor ...

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Novel mixed-linkage {beta}-glucan activated by c-di-GMP in Sinorhizobium meliloti [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Daniel Pérez-Mendoza; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Carvajal; Lorena Romero-Jiménez; Gabriela de Araujo Farias; Javier Llor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

An artificial increase of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) levels in Sinorhizobium meliloti 8530, a bacterium that does not carry known cellulose synthesis genes, leads to overproduction of a substance that binds the dyes Congo red and calcofluor. Sugar composition and methylation analyses and NMR ...

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Inositol pyrophosphates promote tumor growth and metastasis by antagonizing liver kinase B1 [Cell Biology]

10-Feb-2015 | Feng Rao; Jing Xu; Chenglai Fu; Jiyoung Y. Cha; Moataz M. Gadalla; Risheng Xu; James C. Barrow; Solomon H. Snyder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The inositol pyrophosphates, molecular messengers containing an energetic pyrophosphate bond, impact a wide range of biologic processes. They are generated primarily by a family of three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), the principal product of which is diphosphoinositol ...

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Autocrine regulation of ecdysone synthesis by {beta}3-octopamine receptor in the prothoracic gland is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis [Developmental Biology]

03-Feb-2015 | Yuya Ohhara; Yuko Shimada-Niwa; Ryusuke Niwa; Yasunari Kayashima; Yoshiki Hayashi; Kazutaka Akagi; Hitoshi Ueda; Kim ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In Drosophila, pulsed production of the steroid hormone ecdysone plays a pivotal role in developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Ecdysone production is regulated in the prothoracic gland (PG) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and insulin-like peptides (Ilps). Here, we show that ...

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Cyclic AMP concentrations in dendritic cells induce and regulate Th2 immunity and allergic asthma [Immunology and Inflammation]

03-Feb-2015 | Jihyung Lee; Tae Hoon Kim; Fiona Murray; Xiangli Li; Sara S. Choi; David H. Broide; Maripat Corr; Jongdae Lee; Nicho ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The inductive role of dendritic cells (DC) in Th2 differentiation has not been fully defined. We addressed this gap in knowledge by focusing on signaling events mediated by the heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins Gαs, and Gαi, which respectively stimulate and inhibit the activation of adenylyl ...

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Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids [Medical Sciences]

27-Jan-2015 | Daniel F. Vatner; Sachin K. Majumdar; Naoki Kumashiro; Max C. Petersen; Yasmeen Rahimi; Arijeet K. Gattu; Mitchell B ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A central paradox in type 2 diabetes is the apparent selective nature of hepatic insulin resistance—wherein insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production yet continues to stimulate lipogenesis, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Although efforts to explain ...

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