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338 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Novel mixed-linkage {beta}-glucan activated by c-di-GMP in Sinorhizobium meliloti [Microbiology]

17-Feb-2015 | Daniel Pérez-Mendoza; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Carvajal; Lorena Romero-Jiménez; Gabriela de Araujo Farias; Javier Llor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

An artificial increase of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) levels in Sinorhizobium meliloti 8530, a bacterium that does not carry known cellulose synthesis genes, leads to overproduction of a substance that binds the dyes Congo red and calcofluor. Sugar composition and methylation analyses and NMR ...

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Inositol pyrophosphates promote tumor growth and metastasis by antagonizing liver kinase B1 [Cell Biology]

10-Feb-2015 | Feng Rao; Jing Xu; Chenglai Fu; Jiyoung Y. Cha; Moataz M. Gadalla; Risheng Xu; James C. Barrow; Solomon H. Snyder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The inositol pyrophosphates, molecular messengers containing an energetic pyrophosphate bond, impact a wide range of biologic processes. They are generated primarily by a family of three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), the principal product of which is diphosphoinositol ...

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Autocrine regulation of ecdysone synthesis by {beta}3-octopamine receptor in the prothoracic gland is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis [Developmental Biology]

03-Feb-2015 | Yuya Ohhara; Yuko Shimada-Niwa; Ryusuke Niwa; Yasunari Kayashima; Yoshiki Hayashi; Kazutaka Akagi; Hitoshi Ueda; Kim ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In Drosophila, pulsed production of the steroid hormone ecdysone plays a pivotal role in developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Ecdysone production is regulated in the prothoracic gland (PG) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and insulin-like peptides (Ilps). Here, we show that ...

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Cyclic AMP concentrations in dendritic cells induce and regulate Th2 immunity and allergic asthma [Immunology and Inflammation]

03-Feb-2015 | Jihyung Lee; Tae Hoon Kim; Fiona Murray; Xiangli Li; Sara S. Choi; David H. Broide; Maripat Corr; Jongdae Lee; Nicho ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The inductive role of dendritic cells (DC) in Th2 differentiation has not been fully defined. We addressed this gap in knowledge by focusing on signaling events mediated by the heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins Gαs, and Gαi, which respectively stimulate and inhibit the activation of adenylyl ...

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Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids [Medical Sciences]

27-Jan-2015 | Daniel F. Vatner; Sachin K. Majumdar; Naoki Kumashiro; Max C. Petersen; Yasmeen Rahimi; Arijeet K. Gattu; Mitchell B ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A central paradox in type 2 diabetes is the apparent selective nature of hepatic insulin resistance—wherein insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production yet continues to stimulate lipogenesis, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Although efforts to explain ...

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Ab initio simulations and the Miller prebiotic synthesis experiment [Physical Sciences]

27-Jan-2015 | Jeffrey L. Bada; Henderson James Cleaves II, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Saitta and Saija (1) claim that ab initio simulations of the 1953 Miller experiment (2) provide new insights into the mechanism of prebiotic synthesis of glycine (Gly) and, by implication, other molecules in this classic experiment. However, decades of research into prebiotic amino acid formation ...

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High-energy chemistry of formamide: A unified mechanism of nucleobase formation [Chemistry]

20-Jan-2015 | Martin Ferus; David Nesvorný; Jiří Šponer; Petr Kubelík; Regina Michalčíková; Violetta Shestivská; Judit E. Šponer; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The coincidence of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) period and the emergence of terrestrial life about 4 billion years ago suggest that extraterrestrial impacts could contribute to the synthesis of the building blocks of the first life-giving molecules. We simulated the high-energy synthesis of ...

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Impact synthesis of the RNA bases [Chemistry]

20-Jan-2015 | Andro C. Rios, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Any discussion related to how life began on this planet inevitably invokes the question as to the origin of bio-organic molecules, a field called prebiotic chemistry (1). How did organic compounds come to populate the early Earth? Before 1953, this question itself was not widely considered within ...

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Structure of CrgA, a cell division structural and regulatory protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in lipid bilayers [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

13-Jan-2015 | Nabanita Das; Jian Dai; Ivan Hung; Malini R. Rajagopalan; Huan-Xiang Zhou; Timothy A. Cross, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The 93-residue transmembrane protein CrgA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a central component of the divisome, a large macromolecular machine responsible for cell division. Through interactions with multiple other components including FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsI (PBPB), PBPA, and CwsA, CrgA facilitates the ...

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Synthetic lethality of combined glutaminase and Hsp90 inhibition in mTORC1-driven tumor cells [Cell Biology]

06-Jan-2015 | Jing Li; Alfredo Csibi; Sun Yang; Gregory R. Hoffman; Chenggang Li; Erik Zhang; Jane J. Yu; John Blenis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates multiple signals from growth factors, nutrients, and cellular energy status to control a wide range of metabolic processes, including mRNA biogenesis; protein, nucleotide, and lipid synthesis; and autophagy. Deregulation of the ...

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