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362 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Creative template-dependent synthesis by human polymerase mu [Biochemistry]

18-Aug-2015 | Andrea F. Moon; Rajendrakumar A. Gosavi; Thomas A. Kunkel; Lars C. Pedersen; Katarzyna Bebenek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Among the many proteins used to repair DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two related family X DNA polymerases, Pol λ and Pol µ. Which of these two polymerases is preferentially used for filling DNA gaps during NHEJ partly depends on sequence complementarity at the ...

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Cloning, synthesis, and characterization of {alpha}O-conotoxin GeXIVA, a potent {alpha}9{alpha}10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist [Biochemistry]

28-Jul-2015 | Sulan Luo; Dongting Zhangsun; Peta J. Harvey; Quentin Kaas; Yong Wu; Xiaopeng Zhu; Yuanyan Hu; Xiaodan Li; Victor I. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We identified a previously unidentified conotoxin gene from Conus generalis whose precursor signal sequence has high similarity to the O1-gene conotoxin superfamily. The predicted mature peptide, αO-conotoxin GeXIVA (GeXIVA), has four Cys residues, and its three disulfide isomers were ...

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Anomalous scaling law of strength and toughness of cellulose nanopaper [Engineering]

21-Jul-2015 | Hongli Zhu; Shuze Zhu; Zheng Jia; Sepideh Parvinian; Yuanyuan Li; Oeyvind Vaaland; Liangbing Hu; Teng Li, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The quest for both strength and toughness is perpetual in advanced material design; unfortunately, these two mechanical properties are generally mutually exclusive. So far there exists only limited success of attaining both strength and toughness, which often needs material-specific, complicated, ...

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DNA polymerase from temperate phage Bam35 is endowed with processive polymerization and abasic sites translesion synthesis capacity [Biochemistry]

07-Jul-2015 | Mónica Berjón-Otero; Laurentino Villar; Miguel de Vega; Margarita Salas; Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

DNA polymerases (DNAPs) responsible for genome replication are highly faithful enzymes that nonetheless cannot deal with damaged DNA. In contrast, translesion synthesis (TLS) DNAPs are suitable for replicating modified template bases, although resulting in very low-fidelity products. Here we ...

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Self-reproducing catalyst drives repeated phospholipid synthesis and membrane growth [Chemistry]

07-Jul-2015 | Michael D. Hardy; Jun Yang; Jangir Selimkhanov; Christian M. Cole; Lev S. Tsimring; Neal K. Devaraj, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cell membranes are dynamic structures found in all living organisms. There have been numerous constructs that model phospholipid membranes. However, unlike natural membranes, these biomimetic systems cannot sustain growth owing to an inability to replenish phospholipid-synthesizing catalysts. ...

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Synthesis of lithium polyhydrides above 130 GPa at 300 K [Physics]

23-Jun-2015 | Charles Pépin; Paul Loubeyre; Florent Occelli; Paul Dumas, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The prediction of novel lithium hydrides with nontraditional stoichiometries at high pressure has been seminal for highlighting a promising line of research on hydrogen-dense materials. Here, we report the evidences of the disproportionation of LiH above 130 GPa to form lithium hydrides ...

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SAR11 lipid renovation in response to phosphate starvation [Environmental Sciences]

23-Jun-2015 | Paul Carini; Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy; J. Cameron Thrash; Angelicque White; Yanlin Zhao; Emily O. Campbell; Helen F. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Phytoplankton inhabiting oligotrophic ocean gyres actively reduce their phosphorus demand by replacing polar membrane phospholipids with those lacking phosphorus. Although the synthesis of nonphosphorus lipids is well documented in some heterotrophic bacterial lineages, phosphorus-free lipid ...

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Meteorite-catalyzed synthesis of nucleosides and other prebiotic compounds [Chemistry]

09-Jun-2015 | Martin Ferus; Antonín Knížek; Svatopluk Civiš, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The origin of life is a longstanding enigma that fascinates scientists and the general public alike. Scientific efforts have yielded a significant amount of data over the last 100 y following a fundamental cornerstone publication: Proiskhozhozhdenie Zhizny (Origin of Life) by Alexander Ivanovich ...

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Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

09-Jun-2015 | Maïa Kuga; Bernard Marty; Yves Marrocchi; Laurent Tissandier, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in ...

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Entamoeba mitosomes play an important role in encystation by association with cholesteryl sulfate synthesis [Evolution]

02-Jun-2015 | Fumika Mi-ichi; Tomofumi Miyamoto; Shouko Takao; Ghulam Jeelani; Tetsuo Hashimoto; Hiromitsu Hara; Tomoyoshi Nozaki; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in ...

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