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387 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Structure of NDP-forming Acetyl-CoA synthetase ACD1 reveals a large rearrangement for phosphoryl transfer [Biochemistry]

02-Feb-2016 | Renato H.-J. Weiße; Annette Faust; Marcel Schmidt; Peter Schönheit; Axel J. Scheidig, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases (ACDs) catalyze the conversion of various CoA thioesters to the corresponding acids, conserving their chemical energy in form of ATP. The ACDs are the major energy-conserving enzymes in sugar and peptide fermentation of hyperthermophilic archaea. They are ...

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Hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for autoreactive T-cell trafficking, activation, and Th1 polarization [Immunology and Inflammation]

02-Feb-2016 | Hedwich F. Kuipers; Mary Rieck; Irina Gurevich; Nadine Nagy; Manish J. Butte; Robert S. Negrin; Thomas N. Wight; Law ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The extracellular matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) accumulates at sites of autoimmune inflammation, including white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its functional importance in pathogenesis is unclear. We have evaluated the impact of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an oral ...

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Discovery of RNA splicing and genes in pieces [Biochemistry]

26-Jan-2016 | Arnold J. Berk, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The Problem: Short-Lived Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA During the 1960s and 1970s, there was a major conundrum in eukaryotic molecular biology regarding the synthesis of mRNA in animal cells. Pulse and pulse-chase radio-labeling experiments with tritiated uridine had shown that a large fraction of ...

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Science for a wilder Anthropocene: Synthesis and future directions for trophic rewilding research [Biological Sciences]

26-Jan-2016 | Jens-Christian Svenning; Pil B. M. Pedersen; C. Josh Donlan; Rasmus Ejrnæs; Søren Faurby; Mauro Galetti; Dennis M. H ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Trophic rewilding is an ecological restoration strategy that uses species introductions to restore top-down trophic interactions and associated trophic cascades to promote self-regulating biodiverse ecosystems. Given the importance of large animals in trophic cascades and their widespread losses ...

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One-pot system for synthesis, assembly, and display of functional single-span membrane proteins on oil-water interfaces [Applied Physical Sciences]

19-Jan-2016 | Peter J. Yunker; Haruichi Asahara; Kuo-Chan Hung; Corey Landry; Laura R. Arriaga; Ilke Akartuna; John Heyman; Shaoro ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Single-span membrane proteins (ssMPs) represent approximately one-half of all membrane proteins and play important roles in cellular communications. However, like all membrane proteins, ssMPs are prone to misfolding and aggregation because of the hydrophobicity of transmembrane helices, making ...

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A cell wall damage response mediated by a sensor kinase/response regulator pair enables beta-lactam tolerance [Microbiology]

12-Jan-2016 | Tobias Dörr; Laura Alvarez; Fernanda Delgado; Brigid M. Davis; Felipe Cava; Matthew K. Waldor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The bacterial cell wall is critical for maintenance of cell shape and survival. Following exposure to antibiotics that target enzymes required for cell wall synthesis, bacteria typically lyse. Although several cell envelope stress response systems have been well described, there is little ...

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CO and CN- syntheses by [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturase HydG are catalytically differentiated events [Biochemistry]

05-Jan-2016 | Adrien Pagnier; Lydie Martin; Laura Zeppieri; Yvain Nicolet; Juan C. Fontecilla-Camps, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The synthesis and assembly of the active site [FeFe] unit of [FeFe]-hydrogenases require at least three maturases. The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine HydG, the best characterized of these proteins, is responsible for the synthesis of the hydrogenase CO and CN− ligands from tyrosine-derived ...

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Unveiling the crucial intermediates in androgen production [Chemistry]

29-Dec-2015 | Piotr J. Mak; Michael C. Gregory; Ilia G. Denisov; Stephen G. Sligar; James R. Kincaid, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Ablation of androgen production through surgery is one strategy against prostate cancer, with the current focus placed on pharmaceutical intervention to restrict androgen synthesis selectively, an endeavor that could benefit from the enhanced understanding of enzymatic mechanisms that derives ...

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Rod disc renewal occurs by evagination of the ciliary plasma membrane that makes cadherin-based contacts with the inner segment [Cell Biology]

29-Dec-2015 | Thomas Burgoyne; Ingrid P. Meschede; Jemima J. Burden; Maryse Bailly; Miguel C. Seabra; Clare E. Futter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The outer segments of vertebrate rod photoreceptors are renewed every 10 d. Outer segment components are transported from the site of synthesis in the inner segment through the connecting cilium, followed by assembly of the highly ordered discs. Two models of assembly of discrete discs involving ...

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QQS orphan gene regulates carbon and nitrogen partitioning across species via NF-YC interactions [Plant Biology]

24-Nov-2015 | Ling Li; Wenguang Zheng; Yanbing Zhu; Huaxun Ye; Buyun Tang; Zebulun W. Arendsee; Dallas Jones; Ruoran Li; Diego Ort ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The allocation of carbon and nitrogen resources to the synthesis of plant proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids is complex and under the control of many genes; much remains to be understood about this process. QQS (Qua-Quine Starch; At3g30720), an orphan gene unique to Arabidopsis thaliana, ...

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