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454 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

19-May-2015 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Groundwater contamination near hydraulic fracturing wells Foaming drinking water from a contaminated well. High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) employs volumes of water, sand, and chemicals under extreme pressure to create cracks in deep rock formations, releasing natural gas deposits. Garth ...

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Evaluating a groundwater supply contamination incident attributed to Marcellus Shale gas development [Environmental Sciences]

19-May-2015 | Garth T. Llewellyn; Frank Dorman; J. L. Westland; D. Yoxtheimer; Paul Grieve; Todd Sowers; E. Humston-Fulmer; Susan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has revolutionized the oil and gas industry worldwide but has been accompanied by highly controversial incidents of reported water contamination. For example, groundwater contamination by stray natural gas and spillage of brine and other gas ...

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Signature properties of water: Their molecular electronic origins [Physics]

19-May-2015 | Vlad P. Sokhan; Andrew P. Jones; Flaviu S. Cipcigan; Jason Crain; Glenn J. Martyna, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Water challenges our fundamental understanding of emergent materials properties from a molecular perspective. It exhibits a uniquely rich phenomenology including dramatic variations in behavior over the wide temperature range of the liquid into water’s crystalline phases and amorphous states. We ...

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Putative extremely long evolutionary stasis in bacteria might be explained by serial convergence [Biological Sciences]

19-May-2015 | Petr Dvořák; Dale A. Casamatta; Petr Hašler; Aloisie Poulíčková, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In a recent paper, Schopf et al. (1) analyzed 1.8-Ga-old fossil sulfur bacteria and found an intriguing morphological similarity between fossil and modern species. Moreover, the authors showed that the deep-water sulfur cycling environment, where these bacteria reside, has not significantly ...

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Visible photoelectrochemical water splitting into H2 and O2 in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell [Chemistry]

12-May-2015 | Leila Alibabaei; Benjamin D. Sherman; Michael R. Norris; M. Kyle Brennaman; Thomas J. Meyer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A hybrid strategy for solar water splitting is exploited here based on a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) with a mesoporous SnO2/TiO2 core/shell nanostructured electrode derivatized with a surface-bound Ru(II) polypyridyl-based chromophore–catalyst assembly. The assembly, ...

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Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes [Ecology]

12-May-2015 | Yuuki Y. Watanabe; Kenneth J. Goldman; Jennifer E. Caselle; Demian D. Chapman; Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche ...

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Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale [Environmental Sciences]

05-May-2015 | Sebastian Stehle; Ralf Schulz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., ...

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Metabolic cascades in marine microbial communities [Ecology]

05-May-2015 | Andreas F. Haas; Forest Rohwer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

It is 3:00 AM and a thousand-pound rosette is swinging off the back of the ship. The rosette cradles dozens of Niskin bottles that contain water samples retrieved from various depths. As the crew laboriously secures all moving parts, you get soaked with 4 °C seawater setting up filters to...

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Predicting plant vulnerability to drought in biodiverse regions using functional traits [Ecology]

05-May-2015 | Robert Paul Skelton; Adam G. West; Todd E. Dawson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Attempts to understand mechanisms underlying plant mortality during drought have led to the emergence of a hydraulic framework describing distinct hydraulic strategies among coexisting species. This framework distinguishes species that rapidly decrease stomatal conductance (gs), thereby ...

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An Mn(V)-oxo role in splitting water? [Chemistry]

28-Apr-2015 | R. David Britt; Daniel L. M. Suess; Troy A. Stich, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) uses the full spectrum of visible light to oxidize water, producing O2 and bioactivated electrons and protons (1, 2). The unique nature of this crucial bioenergetic reaction has led to much interest in harnessing analogous photochemistry ...

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