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531 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Resolving the HONO formation mechanism in the ionosphere via ab initio molecular dynamic simulations [Chemistry]

26-Apr-2016 | Rongxing He; Lei Li; Jie Zhong; Chongqin Zhu; Joseph S. Francisco; Xiao Cheng Zeng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO+) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth’s surface. NO+ is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The ...

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Revealing catastrophic failure of leaf networks under stress [Environmental Sciences]

26-Apr-2016 | Timothy J. Brodribb; Diane Bienaimé; Philippe Marmottant, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The intricate patterns of veins that adorn the leaves of land plants are among the most important networks in biology. Water flows in these leaf irrigation networks under tension and is vulnerable to embolism-forming cavitations, which cut off water supply, ultimately causing leaf death. ...

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The hydrophobic effect, and fluctuations: The long and the short of it [Chemistry]

26-Apr-2016 | Erte Xi; Amish J. Patel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The hydrophobic effect, which is used to describe the aversion of oil for water or the affinity of oily objects for one another in water, plays an important role in diverse disciplines (1). For example, by segregating to the oil–water interface, amphiphilic molecules that possess both hydrophobic ...

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Slow climate velocities of mountain streams portend their role as refugia for cold-water biodiversity [Ecology]

19-Apr-2016 | Daniel J. Isaak; Michael K. Young; Charles H. Luce; Steven W. Hostetler; Seth J. Wenger; Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ve ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The imminent demise of montane species is a recurrent theme in the climate change literature, particularly for aquatic species that are constrained to networks and elevational rather than latitudinal retreat as temperatures increase. Predictions of widespread species losses, however, have yet to ...

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Self-assembly of crystalline nanotubes from monodisperse amphiphilic diblock copolypeptoid tiles [Biochemistry]

12-Apr-2016 | Jing Sun; Xi Jiang; Reidar Lund; Kenneth H. Downing; Nitash P. Balsara; Ronald N. Zuckermann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The folding and assembly of sequence-defined polymers into precisely ordered nanostructures promises a class of well-defined biomimetic architectures with specific function. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers are known to self-assemble in water to form a variety of nanostructured morphologies ...

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Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency [Ecology]

12-Apr-2016 | Mark Andrew Adams; Tarryn L. Turnbull; Janet I. Sprent; Nina Buchmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43–100%) than that for other plants (OP). This ...

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Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

05-Apr-2016 | Luuk L. C. Olijve; Konrad Meister; Arthur L. DeVries; John G. Duman; Shuaiqi Guo; Huib J. Bakker; Ilja K. Voets, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead ...

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News Feature: The Mars anomaly [News Feature]

05-Apr-2016 | Stephen Ornes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The red planet’s size is at the heart of a rift of ideas among researchers modeling the solar system’s formation. The presence of water isn’t the only Mars mystery scientists are keen to probe. Another centers around a seemingly trivial characteristic of the Red Planet: its size. Classic models ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

29-Mar-2016 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Self-organization of fairy circles Fairy circle in the Western Australian outback. Fairy circles are circular patches of bare soil in grasslands that form a uniform hexagonal pattern. Pattern-formation theory predicts that feedback between vegetation growth and water transport leads grasslands to ...

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Oil dispersants do facilitate biodegradation of spilled oil [Biological Sciences]

15-Mar-2016 | Roger C. Prince; Thomas S. Coolbaugh; Thomas F. Parkerton, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Kleindienst et al. (1) question whether dispersants stimulated biodegradation following the Macondo oil release in the Gulf of Mexico, but, in fact, their experimental design illustrates why dispersants play such an essential role in oil spill response. Their method of producing “water ...

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