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407 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Neuronal mechanism for acute mechanosensitivity in tactile-foraging waterfowl [Physiology]

14-10-2014 | Eve R. Schneider; Marco Mastrotto; Willem J. Laursen; Vincent P. Schulz; Jena B. Goodman; Owen H. Funk; Patrick G. G ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Relying almost exclusively on their acute sense of touch, tactile-foraging birds can feed in murky water, but the cellular mechanism is unknown. Mechanical stimuli activate specialized cutaneous end organs in the bill, innervated by trigeminal afferents. We report that trigeminal ganglia (TG) of ...

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Effects of geometry and chemistry on hydrophobic solvation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

14-10-2014 | Robert C. Harris; B. Montgomery Pettitt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Inserting an uncharged van der Waals (vdw) cavity into water disrupts the distribution of water and creates attractive dispersion interactions between the solvent and solute. This free-energy change is the hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔGvdw). Frequently, it is assumed to be linear in the ...

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Conifer species adapt to low-rainfall climates by following one of two divergent pathways [Evolution]

07-10-2014 | Timothy J. Brodribb; Scott A.M. McAdam; Gregory J. Jordan; Samuel C.V. Martins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Water stress is one of the primary selective forces in plant evolution. There are characters often cited as adaptations to water stress, but links between the function of these traits and adaptation to drying climates are tenuous. Here we combine distributional, climatic, and physiological ...

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Prospects for detecting oxygen, water, and chlorophyll on an exo-Earth [Astronomy]

16-09-2014 | Timothy D. Brandt; David S. Spiegel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The goal of finding and characterizing nearby Earth-like planets is driving many NASA high-contrast flagship mission concepts, the latest of which is known as the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST). In this article, we calculate the optimal spectral resolution R = λ/δλ ...

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Assembly and molecular order of two-dimensional peptoid nanosheets through the oil-water interface [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16-09-2014 | Ellen J. Robertson; Gloria K. Oliver; Menglu Qian; Caroline Proulx; Ronald N. Zuckermann; Geraldine L. Richmond, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Peptoid nanosheets are a recently discovered class of 2D nanomaterial that form from the self-assembly of a sequence-specific peptoid polymer at an air–water interface. Nanosheet formation occurs first through the assembly of a peptoid monolayer and subsequent compression into a bilayer ...

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Dynamic hydration shell restores Kauzmann's 1959 explanation of how the hydrophobic factor drives protein folding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09-09-2014 | Robert L. Baldwin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Kauzmann's explanation of how the hydrophobic factor drives protein folding is reexamined. His explanation said that hydrocarbon hydration shells are formed, possibly of clathrate water, and they explain why hydrocarbons have uniquely low solubilities in water. His explanation was not universally ...

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Requirements and limits for life in the context of exoplanets [Astronomy]

02-09-2014 | Christopher P. McKay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The requirements for life on Earth, its elemental composition, and its environmental limits provide a way to assess the habitability of exoplanets. Temperature is key both because of its influence on liquid water and because it can be directly estimated from orbital and climate models of ...

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Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars [Astronomy]

02-09-2014 | James F. Kasting; Ravikumar Kopparapu; Ramses M. Ramirez; Chester E. Harman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to ...

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Vaccines, new opportunities for a new society [Biological Sciences]

26-08-2014 | Rino Rappuoli; Mariagrazia Pizza; Giuseppe Del Giudice; Ennio De Gregorio, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Vaccination is the most effective medical intervention ever introduced and, together with clean water and sanitation, it has eliminated a large part of the infectious diseases that once killed millions of people. A recent study concluded that since 1924 in the United States alone, vaccines have ...

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Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States [Sustainability Science]

19-08-2014 | Gidon Eshel; Alon Shepon; Tamar Makov; Ron Milo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a ...

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