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18,207 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

19-May-2015 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Groundwater contamination near hydraulic fracturing wells Foaming drinking water from a contaminated well. High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) employs volumes of water, sand, and chemicals under extreme pressure to create cracks in deep rock formations, releasing natural gas deposits. Garth ...

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Core Concept: CRISPR gene editing [Core Concepts]

19-May-2015 | Amber Dance, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Just a few years ago, molecular biologists hoping to alter the genome of their favorite organisms faced an arduous task and likely weeks of genetic tinkering. Today, those scientists can quickly destroy or edit a gene with a new technology called CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short ...

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Hydration water mobility is enhanced around tau amyloid fibers [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

19-May-2015 | Yann Fichou; Giorgio Schirò; François-Xavier Gallat; Cedric Laguri; Martine Moulin; Jérôme Combet; Michaela Zamponi; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The paired helical filaments (PHF) formed by the intrinsically disordered human protein tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. PHF are fibers of amyloid nature that are composed of a rigid core and an unstructured fuzzy coat. The mechanisms of fiber formation, in ...

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CD4 mimetics sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC [Medical Sciences]

19-May-2015 | Jonathan Richard; Maxime Veillette; Nathalie Brassard; Shilpa S. Iyer; Michel Roger; Loïc Martin; Marzena Pazgier; A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved a sophisticated mechanism to avoid exposure of ADCC-mediating Env epitopes by ...

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Structural details of the OxyR peroxide-sensing mechanism [Microbiology]

19-May-2015 | Inseong Jo; In-Young Chung; Hee-Won Bae; Jin-Sik Kim; Saemee Song; You-Hee Cho; Nam-Chul Ha, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

OxyR, a bacterial peroxide sensor, is a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) that regulates the transcription of defense genes in response to a low level of cellular H2O2. Consisting of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD), OxyR senses H2O2 with ...

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Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors [Cell Biology]

19-May-2015 | Gary S. Ma; Nicolas Aznar; Nicholas Kalogriopoulos; Krishna K. Midde; Inmaculada Lopez-Sanchez; Emi Sato; Ying Dunke ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In eukaryotes, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and trimeric G proteins are two major signaling hubs. Signal transduction via trimeric G proteins has long been believed to be triggered exclusively by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This paradigm has recently been challenged by several ...

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Evaluating a groundwater supply contamination incident attributed to Marcellus Shale gas development [Environmental Sciences]

19-May-2015 | Garth T. Llewellyn; Frank Dorman; J. L. Westland; D. Yoxtheimer; Paul Grieve; Todd Sowers; E. Humston-Fulmer; Susan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has revolutionized the oil and gas industry worldwide but has been accompanied by highly controversial incidents of reported water contamination. For example, groundwater contamination by stray natural gas and spillage of brine and other gas ...

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Connectivity reveals relationship of brain areas for reward-guided learning and decision making in human and monkey frontal cortex [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Franz-Xaver Neubert; Rogier B. Mars; Jérôme Sallet; Matthew F. S. Rushworth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Reward-guided decision-making depends on a network of brain regions. Among these are the orbitofrontal and the anterior cingulate cortex. However, it is difficult to ascertain if these areas constitute anatomical and functional unities, and how these areas correspond between monkeys and humans. ...

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Activity-dependent, homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release from auditory nerve fibers [Neuroscience]

19-May-2015 | Tenzin Ngodup; Jack A. Goetz; Brian C. McGuire; Wei Sun; Amanda M. Lauer; Matthew A. Xu-Friedman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Information processing in the brain requires reliable synaptic transmission. High reliability at specialized auditory nerve synapses in the cochlear nucleus results from many release sites (N), high probability of neurotransmitter release (Pr), and large quantal size (Q). However, high Pr also ...

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Multisite interaction with Sufu regulates Ci/Gli activity through distinct mechanisms in Hh signal transduction [Developmental Biology]

19-May-2015 | Yuhong Han; Qing Shi; Jin Jiang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The tumor suppressor protein Suppressor of fused (Sufu) plays a conserved role in the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway by inhibiting Cubitus interruptus (Ci)/Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) transcription factors, but the molecular mechanism by which Sufu inhibits Ci/Gli activity remains ...

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