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24,862 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Dynamics of GreB-RNA polymerase interaction allow a proofreading accessory protein to patrol for transcription complexes needing rescue [Biochemistry]

14-Feb-2017 | Larry E. Tetone; Larry J. Friedman; Melisa L. Osborne; Harini Ravi; Scotty Kyzer; Sarah K. Stumper; Rachel A. Mooney ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The secondary channel (SC) of multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) allows access to the active site and is a nexus for the regulation of transcription. Multiple regulatory proteins bind in the SC and reprogram the catalytic activity of RNAP, but the dynamics of these factors’ interactions with ...

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Blockade to pathological remodeling of infarcted heart tissue using a porcupine antagonist [Medical Sciences]

14-Feb-2017 | Jesung Moon; Huanyu Zhou; Li-shu Zhang; Wei Tan; Ying Liu; Shanrong Zhang; Lorraine K. Morlock; Xiaoping Bao; Sean P ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The secreted Wnt signaling molecules are essential to the coordination of cell-fate decision making in multicellular organisms. In adult animals, the secreted Wnt proteins are critical for tissue regeneration and frequently contribute to cancer. Small molecules that disable the Wnt ...

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News Feature: Cleaning up the hygiene hypothesis [Environmental Sciences]

14-Feb-2017 | Megan Scudellari, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The rise of allergy and autoimmune diseases is due to much more than rampant cleanliness. Is it time to throw out the hygiene hypothesis? Early exposure to microbes has important health effects, leading many researchers to question the value of the “hygiene hypothesis” label. Image courtesy of ...

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Systematic dissection of genomic features determining transcription factor binding and enhancer function [Systems Biology]

14-Feb-2017 | Sharon R. Grossman; Xiaolan Zhang; Li Wang; Jesse Engreitz; Alexandre Melnikov; Peter Rogov; Ryan Tewhey; Alina Isak ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Enhancers regulate gene expression through the binding of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) to cognate motifs. Various features influence TF binding and enhancer function—including the chromatin state of the genomic locus, the affinities of the binding site, the activity of the bound ...

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Seafood prices reveal impacts of a major ecological disturbance [Sustainability Science]

14-Feb-2017 | Martin D. Smith; Atle Oglend; A. Justin Kirkpatrick; Frank Asche; Lori S. Bennear; J. Kevin Craig; James M. Nance, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen ≤ 2 mg/L) is a growing problem worldwide that threatens marine ecosystem services, but little is known about economic effects on fisheries. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia causes economic impacts on a major fishery. Ecological studies of hypoxia and marine ...

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Plasmodium berghei EXP-1 interacts with host Apolipoprotein H during Plasmodium liver-stage development [Cell Biology]

14-Feb-2017 | Cláudia Sá e Cunha; Britta Nyboer; Kirsten Heiss; Margarida Sanches-Vaz; Diana Fontinha; Ellen Wiedtke; Dirk Grimm; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The first, obligatory replication phase of malaria parasite infections is characterized by rapid expansion and differentiation of single parasites in liver cells, resulting in the formation and release of thousands of invasive merozoites into the bloodstream. Hepatic Plasmodium development occurs ...

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Design principles for robust vesiculation in clathrin-mediated endocytosis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

14-Feb-2017 | Julian E. Hassinger; George Oster; David G. Drubin; Padmini Rangamani, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

A critical step in cellular-trafficking pathways is the budding of membranes by protein coats, which recent experiments have demonstrated can be inhibited by elevated membrane tension. The robustness of processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) across a diverse range of organisms and ...

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Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species [Evolution]

14-Feb-2017 | Jeet Sukumaran; L. Lacey Knowles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The multispecies coalescent model underlies many approaches used for species delimitation. In previous work assessing the performance of species delimitation under this model, speciation was treated as an instantaneous event rather than as an extended process involving distinct phases of ...

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Holocene peatland and ice-core data constraints on the timing and magnitude of CO2 emissions from past land use [Sustainability Science]

14-Feb-2017 | Benjamin David Stocker; Zicheng Yu; Charly Massa; Fortunat Joos, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

CO2 emissions from preindustrial land-use change (LUC) are subject to large uncertainties. Although atmospheric CO2 records suggest only a small land carbon (C) source since 5,000 y before present (5 kyBP), the concurrent C sink by peat buildup could mask large early LUC emissions. Here, we ...

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Formation of a repressive complex in the mammalian circadian clock is mediated by the secondary pocket of CRY1 [Biochemistry]

14-Feb-2017 | Alicia K. Michael; Jennifer L. Fribourgh; Yogarany Chelliah; Colby R. Sandate; Greg L. Hura; Dina Schneidman-Duhovny ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The basic helix–loop–helix PAS domain (bHLH-PAS) transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) sits at the core of the mammalian circadian transcription/translation feedback loop. Precise control of CLOCK:BMAL1 activity by coactivators and repressors establishes the ...

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