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18,559 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Random sampling of skewed distributions does not necessarily imply Taylor's law [Biological Sciences]

23-Jun-2015 | Youhua Chen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cohen and Xu (1) claim that random samples of any skewed distributions with four finite moments would give rise to Taylor’s law (TL). In fact, skewed distributions do not necessarily generate data following TL. Some highly skewed distributions can generate random data rejecting the law. Here, I ...

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Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress [Neuroscience]

23-Jun-2015 | Manuella P. Kaster; Nuno J. Machado; Henrique B. Silva; Ana Nunes; Ana Paula Ardais; Magda Santana; Younis Baqi; Chr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. ...

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Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak [Applied Physical Sciences]

23-Jun-2015 | Su Xu; Hongyi Xu; Hanhong Gao; Yuyu Jiang; Faxin Yu; John D. Joannopoulos; Marin Soljačić; Hongsheng Chen; Handong S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has ...

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Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum [Biochemistry]

23-Jun-2015 | Kanika Bajaj Pahuja; Jinzhi Wang; Anastasia Blagoveshchenskaya; Lillian Lim; M. S. Madhusudhan; Peter Mayinger; Rand ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the ...

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Extracellular ATP induces the rapid release of HIV-1 from virus containing compartments of human macrophages [Microbiology]

23-Jun-2015 | Francesca Graziano; Marion Desdouits; Livia Garzetti; Paola Podini; Massimo Alfano; Anna Rubartelli; Roberto Furlan; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and tissue macrophages. Infected macrophages differ from T cells in terms of decreased to absent cytopathicity and for active accumulation of new progeny HIV-1 virions in virus-containing compartments (VCC). For these reasons, infected macrophages are ...

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TLR4 has a TP53-dependent dual role in regulating breast cancer cell growth [Cell Biology]

23-Jun-2015 | Svasti Haricharan; Powel Brown, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is important to understand pathways that drive the disease to devise effective therapeutic strategies. Our results show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) drives breast cancer cell growth differentially based on the presence of TP53, ...

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New chronology for Ksar 'Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe [Anthropology]

23-Jun-2015 | Marjolein D. Bosch; Marcello A. Mannino; Amy L. Prendergast; Tamsin C. O’Connell; Beatrice Demarchi; Sheila M. Taylo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Modern human dispersal into Europe is thought to have occurred with the start of the Upper Paleolithic around 50,000–40,000 y ago. The Levantine corridor hypothesis suggests that modern humans from Africa spread into Europe via the Levant. Ksâr ‘Akil (Lebanon), with its deeply stratified Initial ...

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Neurons selective to the number of visual items in the corvid songbird endbrain [Neuroscience]

23-Jun-2015 | Helen M. Ditz; Andreas Nieder, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

It is unknown whether anatomical specializations in the endbrains of different vertebrates determine the neuronal code to represent numerical quantity. Therefore, we recorded single-neuron activity from the endbrain of crows trained to judge the number of items in displays. Many neurons were ...

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Mass extinction in poorly known taxa [Ecology]

23-Jun-2015 | Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Since the 1980s, many have suggested we are in the midst of a massive extinction crisis, yet only 799 (0.04%) of the 1.9 million known recent species are recorded as extinct, questioning the reality of the crisis. This low figure is due to the fact that the status of very...

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Long-circulating siRNA nanoparticles for validating Prohibitin1-targeted non-small cell lung cancer treatment [Engineering]

23-Jun-2015 | Xi Zhu; Yingjie Xu; Luisa M. Solis; Wei Tao; Liangzhe Wang; Carmen Behrens; Xiaoyang Xu; Lili Zhao; Danny Liu; Jun W ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

RNA interference (RNAi) represents a promising strategy for identification and validation of putative therapeutic targets and for treatment of a myriad of important human diseases including cancer. However, the effective systemic in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumors remains ...

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