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23,044 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Oxidation and cyclization of casbene in the biosynthesis of Euphorbia factors from mature seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L. [Plant Biology]

23-Aug-2016 | Dan Luo; Roberta Callari; Britta Hamberger; Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet; Morten T. Nielsen; Johan Andersen-Ranberg; Bjö ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The seed oil of Euphorbia lathyris L. contains a series of macrocyclic diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors. They are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition. Here, we report an alcohol ...

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Erasure of DNA methylation, genomic imprints, and epimutations in a primordial germ-cell model derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells [Developmental Biology]

23-Aug-2016 | Norikatsu Miyoshi; Jente M. Stel; Keiko Shioda; Na Qu; Junko Odahima; Shino Mitsunaga; Xiangfan Zhang; Makoto Nagano ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The genome-wide depletion of 5-methylcytosines (5meCs) caused by passive dilution through DNA synthesis without daughter strand methylation and active enzymatic processes resulting in replacement of 5meCs with unmethylated cytosines is a hallmark of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Although recent ...

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Reducing C-terminal truncation mitigates synucleinopathy and neurodegeneration in a transgenic model of multiple system atrophy [Medical Sciences]

23-Aug-2016 | Fares Bassil; Pierre-Olivier Fernagut; Erwan Bezard; Alain Pruvost; Thierry Leste-Lasserre; Quyen Q. Hoang; Dagmar R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic orphan neurodegenerative disorder. No treatment is currently available to slow down the aggressive neurodegenerative process, and patients die within a few years after disease onset. The cytopathological hallmark of MSA is the accumulation of ...

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QnAs with Shiv Grewal [QnAs]

23-Aug-2016 | Brian Doctrow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The chromosomes that make up eukaryotic genomes consist of a complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins called chromatin. Chromatin occurs in two forms: euchromatin, a loosely packaged form that is poised for transcription, and heterochromatin, a tightly packaged, transcriptionally repressed form. By ...

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Climate warming reduces fish production and benthic habitat in Lake Tanganyika, one of the most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems [Environmental Sciences]

23-Aug-2016 | Andrew S. Cohen; Elizabeth L. Gergurich; Benjamin M. Kraemer; Michael M. McGlue; Peter B. McIntyre; James M. Russell ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Warming climates are rapidly transforming lake ecosystems worldwide, but the breadth of changes in tropical lakes is poorly documented. Sustainable management of freshwater fisheries and biodiversity requires accounting for historical and ongoing stressors such as climate change and harvest ...

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Adiabatic quenches and characterization of amplitude excitations in a continuous quantum phase transition [Physics]

23-Aug-2016 | Thai M. Hoang; Hebbe M. Bharath; Matthew J. Boguslawski; Martin Anquez; Bryce A. Robbins; Michael S. Chapman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in a physical system whenever the ground state does not share the symmetry of the underlying theory, e.g., the Hamiltonian. This mechanism gives rise to massless Nambu–Goldstone modes and massive Anderson–Higgs modes. These modes provide a fundamental ...

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Article does not explain the origin of free-solution protein interaction signals [Physical Sciences]

23-Aug-2016 | Manoj M. Varma, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Bornhop et al. (1) had shown that interactions between protein molecules in solution can be detected by measuring the solution refractive index shifts using a technique referred to as backscattering interferometry (BSI). The origin of the BSI signal was unclear. In a recent article in PNAS, ...

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Cellular normoxic biophysical markers of hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell disease [Engineering]

23-Aug-2016 | Poorya Hosseini; Sabia Z. Abidi; E Du; Dimitrios P. Papageorgiou; Youngwoon Choi; YongKeun Park; John M. Higgins; Gr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Hydroxyurea (HU) has been used clinically to reduce the frequency of painful crisis and the need for blood transfusion in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. However, the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects of HU treatment are still not fully understood. Studies have indicated a weak ...

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Critically evaluating the theory and performance of Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures [Evolution]

23-Aug-2016 | Brian R. Moore; Sebastian Höhna; Michael R. May; Bruce Rannala; John P. Huelsenbeck, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures (BAMM) has recently taken the study of lineage diversification by storm. BAMM estimates the diversification-rate parameters (speciation and extinction) for every branch of a study phylogeny and infers the number and location of diversification-rate ...

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Profile of Patricia L. Crown [Profile]

23-Aug-2016 | Jennifer Viegas, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

For more than four decades, Patricia Crown, a professor of anthropology at the University of New Mexico, has conducted field investigations in the Ancestral Pueblo, Mogollon, and Hohokam areas of the American Southwest. Her work has revealed important aspects of these cultures concerning ...

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