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28,357 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Preservation of the genetic diversity of a local common carp in the agricultural heritage rice-fish system [Sustainability Science]

16-Jan-2018 | Weizheng Ren; Liangliang Hu; Liang Guo; Jian Zhang; Lu Tang; Entao Zhang; Jiaen Zhang; Shiming Luo; Jianjun Tang; Xi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

We examined how traditional farmers preserve the genetic diversity of a local common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which is locally referred to as “paddy field carp” (PF-carp), in a “globally important agricultural heritage system” (GIAHS), i.e., the 1,200-y-old rice–fish coculture system in Zhejiang ...

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Endless skulls most beautiful [Evolution]

16-Jan-2018 | Daniel J. Field, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The amazing disparity of living birds is self-apparent, yet immensely challenging to fully quantify. After all, birds are represented by nearly 11,000 living species, comprising a mind-boggling spectrum of shapes, sizes, and colors (1). This incredible variability manifests in an incalculable ...

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Removal of perineuronal nets disrupts recall of a remote fear memory [Neuroscience]

16-Jan-2018 | Elise Holter Thompson; Kristian Kinden Lensjø; Mattis Brænne Wigestrand; Anders Malthe-Sørenssen; Torkel Hafting; Ma ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Throughout life animals learn to recognize cues that signal danger and instantaneously initiate an adequate threat response. Memories of such associations may last a lifetime and far outlast the intracellular molecules currently found to be important for memory processing. The memory engram may ...

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Pairwise comparisons across species are problematic when analyzing functional genomic data [Evolution]

16-Jan-2018 | Casey W. Dunn; Felipe Zapata; Catriona Munro; Stefan Siebert; Andreas Hejnol, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

There is considerable interest in comparing functional genomic data across species. One goal of such work is to provide an integrated understanding of genome and phenotype evolution. Most comparative functional genomic studies have relied on multiple pairwise comparisons between species, an ...

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The prodrug of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone development and therapeutic efficacy for treating Alzheimer’s disease [Chemistry]

16-Jan-2018 | Chun Chen; Zhihao Wang; Zhentao Zhang; Xia Liu; Seong Su Kang; Ying Zhang; Keqiang Ye, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The BDNF mimetic compound 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a potent small molecular TrkB agonist, displays prominent therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, 7,8-DHF has only modest oral bioavailability and a moderate pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. To alleviate these ...

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Graphene-based bimorphs for micron-sized, autonomous origami machines [Applied Physical Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Marc Z. Miskin; Kyle J. Dorsey; Baris Bircan; Yimo Han; David A. Muller; Paul L. McEuen; Itai Cohen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Origami-inspired fabrication presents an attractive platform for miniaturizing machines: thinner layers of folding material lead to smaller devices, provided that key functional aspects, such as conductivity, stiffness, and flexibility, are persevered. Here, we show origami fabrication at its ...

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Hypoxia-induced transcription factor signaling is essential for larval growth of the mosquito Aedes aegypti [Developmental Biology]

16-Jan-2018 | Luca Valzania; Kerri L. Coon; Kevin J. Vogel; Mark R. Brown; Michael R. Strand, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Gut microbes positively affect the physiology of many animals, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these benefits remain poorly understood. We recently reported that bacteria-induced gut hypoxia functions as a signal for growth and molting of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In this study, we ...

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Expression of an active G{alpha}s mutant in skeletal stem cells is sufficient and necessary for fibrous dysplasia initiation and maintenance [Genetics]

16-Jan-2018 | Xuefeng Zhao; Peng Deng; Ramiro Iglesias-Bartolome; Panomwat Amornphimoltham; Dana J. Steffen; Yunyun Jin; Alfredo A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a disease caused by postzygotic activating mutations of GNAS (R201C and R201H) that encode the α-subunit of the Gs stimulatory protein. FD is characterized by the development of areas of abnormal fibroosseous tissue in the bones, resulting in skeletal deformities, ...

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Antagonistic regulation of trafficking to Caenorhabditis elegans sensory cilia by a Retinal Degeneration 3 homolog and retromer [Genetics]

16-Jan-2018 | Luis A. Martínez-Velázquez; Niels Ringstad, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Sensory neurons often possess cilia with elaborate membrane structures that are adapted to the sensory modality of the host cell. Mechanisms that target sensory transduction proteins to these specialized membrane domains remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a homolog of the human retinal ...

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Induced GnasR201H expression from the endogenous Gnas locus causes fibrous dysplasia by up-regulating Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling [Genetics]

16-Jan-2018 | Sanjoy Kumar Khan; Prem Swaroop Yadav; Gene Elliott; Dorothy Zhang Hu; Ruoshi Xu; Yingzi Yang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Fibrous dysplasia (FD; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 174800) is a crippling skeletal disease caused by activating mutations of the GNAS gene, which encodes the stimulatory G protein Gαs. FD can lead to severe adverse conditions such as bone deformity, fracture, and severe pain, leading ...

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