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14,816 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Primary cilia control hedgehog signaling during muscle differentiation and are deregulated in rhabdomyosarcoma [Cell Biology]

24-06-2014 | Wenxiang Fu; Patrik Asp; Brian Canter; Brian David Dynlacht, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The primary cilium acts as a cellular antenna, transducing diverse signaling pathways, and recent evidence suggests that primary cilia are important in development and cancer. However, a role for cilia in normal muscle development and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has not been explored. Here we ...

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Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen [Sustainability Science]

24-06-2014 | Iurii Shcherbak; Neville Millar; G. Philip Robertson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that also depletes stratospheric ozone. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate is the best single predictor of N2O emissions from agricultural soils, which are responsible for ∼50% of the total global anthropogenic flux, but it is a relatively imprecise ...

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Structural and mechanistic studies of polymerase {eta} bypass of phenanthriplatin DNA damage [Biochemistry]

24-06-2014 | Mark T. Gregory; Ga Young Park; Timothy C. Johnstone; Young-Sam Lee; Wei Yang; Stephen J. Lippard, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Platinum drugs are a mainstay of anticancer chemotherapy. Nevertheless, tumors often display inherent or acquired resistance to platinum-based treatments, prompting the search for new compounds that do not exhibit cross-resistance with current therapies. Phenanthriplatin, ...

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Resting GABA and glutamate concentrations do not predict visual gamma frequency or amplitude [Neuroscience]

24-06-2014 | Helena Cousijn; Saskia Haegens; George Wallis; Jamie Near; Mark G. Stokes; Paul J. Harrison; Anna C. Nobre, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Gamma band oscillations arise in neuronal networks of interconnected GABAergic interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells. A previous study found a correlation between visual gamma peak frequency, as measured with magnetoencephalography, and resting GABA levels, as measured with magnetic ...

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Human memory T cells from the bone marrow are resting and maintain long-lasting systemic memory [Immunology]

24-06-2014 | Anna Okhrimenko; Joachim R. Grün; Kerstin Westendorf; Zhuo Fang; Simon Reinke; Philipp von Roth; Georgi Wassilew; An ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In the bone marrow, a population of memory T cells has been described that promotes efficient secondary immune responses and has been considered to be preactivated, owing to its expression of CD69 and CD25. Here we show that human bone marrow professional memory T cells are not activated but ...

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Genetic basis of protein secretion in cells [Inner Workings]

24-06-2014 | Jessica Marshall, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In 1978, researchers had established that certain proteins in eukaryotic cells were secreted and that these proteins were produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and moved through the Golgi apparatus and into secretory vesicles that fuse with the cell membrane, releasing the proteins out of the ...

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Evolutionary developmental transcriptomics reveals a gene network module regulating interspecific diversity in plant leaf shape [Plant Biology]

24-06-2014 | Yasunori Ichihashi; José Antonio Aguilar-Martínez; Moran Farhi; Daniel H. Chitwood; Ravi Kumar; Lee V. Millon; Jie P ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Despite a long-standing interest in the genetic basis of morphological diversity, the molecular mechanisms that give rise to developmental variation are incompletely understood. Here, we use comparative transcriptomics coupled with the construction of gene coexpression networks to predict a gene ...

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Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

24-06-2014 | Teresa Romero; Miho Nagasawa; Kazutaka Mogi; Toshikazu Hasegawa; Takefumi Kikusui, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the ...

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Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world [Astronomy]

24-06-2014 | Tyler D. Robinson; Luca Maltagliati; Mark S. Marley; Jonathan J. Fortney, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. ...

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Redemption of autoantibodies on anergic B cells by variable-region glycosylation and mutation away from self-reactivity [Immunology]

24-06-2014 | Zahra Sabouri; Peter Schofield; Keisuke Horikawa; Emily Spierings; David Kipling; Katrina L. Randall; David Langley; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The best-understood mechanisms for achieving antibody self/non-self discrimination discard self-reactive antibodies before they can be tested for binding microbial antigens, potentially creating holes in the repertoire. Here we provide evidence for a complementary mechanism: retaining ...

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