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24,497 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Systematic development of small molecules to inhibit specific microscopic steps of A{beta}42 aggregation in Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]

10-Jan-2017 | Johnny Habchi; Sean Chia; Ryan Limbocker; Benedetta Mannini; Minkoo Ahn; Michele Perni; Oskar Hansson; Paolo Arosio; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The aggregation of the 42-residue form of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42) is a pivotal event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The use of chemical kinetics has recently enabled highly accurate quantifications of the effects of small molecules on specific microscopic steps in Aβ42 aggregation. Here, we ...

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Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Breakthroughs in baker's yeast fuel advances in biomedical research [Cell Biology]

10-Jan-2017 | Beth Levine; Daniel J. Klionsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Autophagy is an ancient pathway in which parts of eukaryotic cells are self-digested within the lysosome or vacuole. This process has been studied for the past seven decades; however, we are only beginning to gain a molecular understanding of the key steps required for autophagy. Originally ...

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Single-pixel interior filling function approach for detecting and correcting errors in particle tracking [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

10-Jan-2017 | Stanislav Burov; Patrick Figliozzi; Binhua Lin; Stuart A. Rice; Norbert F. Scherer; Aaron R. Dinner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

We present a general method for detecting and correcting biases in the outputs of particle-tracking experiments. Our approach is based on the histogram of estimated positions within pixels, which we term the single-pixel interior filling function (SPIFF). We use the deviation of the SPIFF from a ...

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Structure of phosphorylated UBL domain and insights into PINK1-orchestrated parkin activation [Biochemistry]

10-Jan-2017 | Jacob D. Aguirre; Karen M. Dunkerley; Pascal Mercier; Gary S. Shaw, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Mutations in PARK2 and PARK6 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary Parkinson’s disease cases. These genes encode the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), respectively. Together, parkin and PINK1 regulate the mitophagy pathway, which ...

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Ultrastructural anatomy of nodes of Ranvier in the peripheral nervous system as revealed by STED microscopy [Neuroscience]

10-Jan-2017 | Elisa D’Este; Dirk Kamin; Francisco Balzarotti; Stefan W. Hell, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

We used stimulated emission depletion (STED) superresolution microscopy to analyze the nanoscale organization of 12 glial and axonal proteins at the nodes of Ranvier of teased sciatic nerve fibers. Cytoskeletal proteins of the axon (betaIV spectrin, ankyrin G) exhibit a high degree of ...

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Mosaic expression of claudins in thick ascending limbs of Henle results in spatial separation of paracellular Na+ and Mg2+ transport [Physiology]

10-Jan-2017 | Susanne Milatz; Nina Himmerkus; Vera Christine Wulfmeyer; Hoora Drewell; Kerim Mutig; Jianghui Hou; Tilman Breiderho ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle’s loop drives paracellular Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ reabsorption via the tight junction (TJ). The TJ is composed of claudins that consist of four transmembrane segments, two extracellular segments (ECS1 and -2), and one intracellular loop. Claudins interact ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

10-Jan-2017 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Nanoscale braids and weaves Maypole dance. Image courtesy of WIkimedia Commons/Grenville Burrows. Within all living cells, precisely arranged protein complexes use energy from ATP to perform mechanical work. Researchers have sought to emulate these biological machines by manipulating individual ...

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Synthesis of arborane triterpenols by a bacterial oxidosqualene cyclase [Microbiology]

10-Jan-2017 | Amy B. Banta; Jeremy H. Wei; Clare C. C. Gill; José-Luis Giner; Paula V. Welander, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

Cyclic triterpenoids are a broad class of polycyclic lipids produced by bacteria and eukaryotes. They are biologically relevant for their roles in cellular physiology, including membrane structure and function, and biochemically relevant for their exquisite enzymatic cyclization mechanism. Cyclic ...

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Influenza A surface glycosylation and vaccine design [Chemistry]

10-Jan-2017 | Chung-Yi Wu; Chih-Wei Lin; Tsung-I Tsai; Chang-Chun David Lee; Hong-Yang Chuang; Jhih-Bin Chen; Ming-Hung Tsai; Bo-R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

We have shown that glycosylation of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA), especially at position N-27, is crucial for HA folding and virus survival. However, it is not known whether the glycosylation of HA and the other two major IAV surface glycoproteins, neuraminidase (NA) and M2 ion ...

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Holocene carbonate record of Lake Kivu reflects the history of hydrothermal activity [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

10-Jan-2017 | Jillian E. Votava; Thomas C. Johnson; Robert E. Hecky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2017

The sediment record of Lake Kivu reveals a complex volcanogenic and climatic Holocene history. Investigation of the inorganic carbonate record dates the onset of carbonate deposition in the mid-Holocene in Kivu’s deep northern and eastern basins and identifies conditions enabling deposition. The ...

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