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16,119 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal [Applied Physical Sciences]

18-11-2014 | Oskar Hallatschek; Daniel S. Fisher, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a ...

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Basin-scale estimates of pelagic and coral reef calcification in the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

18-11-2014 | Zvi Steiner; Jonathan Erez; Aldo Shemesh; Ruth Yam; Amitai Katz; Boaz Lazar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Basin-scale calcification rates are highly important in assessments of the global oceanic carbon cycle. Traditionally, such estimates were based on rates of sedimentation measured with sediment traps or in deep sea cores. Here we estimated CaCO3 precipitation rates in the surface water of the Red ...

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Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

18-11-2014 | Peter J. Wagner; George F. Estabrook, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing ...

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Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate [Neuroscience]

18-11-2014 | Pingxi Xu; Young-Moo Choo; Alyssa De La Rosa; Walter S. Leal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of ...

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Amino acid modified Ni catalyst exhibits reversible H2 oxidation/production over a broad pH range at elevated temperatures [Chemistry]

18-11-2014 | Arnab Dutta; Daniel L. DuBois; John A. S. Roberts; Wendy J. Shaw, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Hydrogenases interconvert H2 and protons at high rates and with high energy efficiencies, providing inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. Studies designed to determine how the protein scaffold can influence a catalytically active site have led to the synthesis of amino acid ...

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Splitting, linking, knotting, and solitonic escape of topological defects in nematic drops with handles [Applied Physical Sciences]

18-11-2014 | Mykola Tasinkevych; Michael G. Campbell; Ivan I. Smalyukh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Topologically nontrivial field excitations, including solitonic, linked, and knotted structures, play important roles in physical systems ranging from classical fluids and liquid crystals, to electromagnetism, classic, and quantum field theories. These excitations can appear spontaneously during ...

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Differential gradients of interaction affinities drive efficient targeting and recycling in the GET pathway [Biochemistry]

18-11-2014 | Michael E. Rome; Un Seng Chio; Meera Rao; Harry Gristick; Shu-ou Shan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Efficient and accurate localization of membrane proteins requires a complex cascade of interactions between protein machineries. This requirement is exemplified in the guided entry of tail-anchored (TA) protein (GET) pathway, where the central targeting factor Get3 must sequentially interact with ...

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Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture [Sustainability Science]

18-11-2014 | Jennifer Burney; V. Ramanathan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Recent research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has primarily focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation. These studies show that India has already been negatively affected by recent climate trends. However, anthropogenic climate changes are a result of both global ...

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IL-27 is required for shaping the magnitude, affinity distribution, and memory of T cells responding to subunit immunization [Immunology and Inflammation]

18-11-2014 | Nathan D. Pennock; Laurent Gapin; Ross M. Kedl, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

An elusive goal of cellular immune vaccines is the generation of large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in response to subunit immunization. A broad spectrum of cytokines and cell-surface costimulatory molecules are known to shape the programming, magnitude, and repertoire of T cells ...

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Gil Ashwell, 1916-2014 [Retrospectives]

18-11-2014 | Michael M. Gottesman; John A. Hanover; William Jakoby, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

On June 27, 2014, George Gilbert “Gil” Ashwell, a pioneer in the field of glycobiology and a constant presence on the campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for more than 50 years, died at age 97. Gil was world renowned as codiscoverer of the asialoglycoprotein receptor in the...

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