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22,302 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain [Microbiology]

14-Jun-2016 | Michael Florea; Henrik Hagemann; Gabriella Santosa; James Abbott; Chris N. Micklem; Xenia Spencer-Milnes; Laura de A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for ...

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Spatial scale modulates the strength of ecological processes driving disease distributions [Ecology]

14-Jun-2016 | Jeremy M. Cohen; David J. Civitello; Amber J. Brace; Erin M. Feichtinger; C. Nicole Ortega; Jason C. Richardson; Eri ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Humans are altering the distribution of species by changing the climate and disrupting biotic interactions and dispersal. A fundamental hypothesis in spatial ecology suggests that these effects are scale dependent; biotic interactions should shape distributions at local scales, whereas climate ...

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Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism [Applied Biological Sciences]

14-Jun-2016 | Di You; Bin-Cheng Yin; Zhi-Hai Li; Ying Zhou; Wen-Bang Yu; Peng Zuo; Bang-Ce Ye, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates ...

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Chloroplast FBPase and SBPase are thioredoxin-linked enzymes with similar architecture but different evolutionary histories [Plant Biology]

14-Jun-2016 | Desirée D. Gütle; Thomas Roret; Stefanie J. Müller; Jérémy Couturier; Stéphane D. Lemaire; Arnaud Hecker; Tiphaine D ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The Calvin–Benson cycle of carbon dioxide fixation in chloroplasts is controlled by light-dependent redox reactions that target specific enzymes. Of the regulatory members of the cycle, our knowledge of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is particularly scanty, despite growing evidence for ...

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Hierarchy of prediction errors for auditory events in human temporal and frontal cortex [Neuroscience]

14-Jun-2016 | Stefan Dürschmid; Erik Edwards; Christoph Reichert; Callum Dewar; Hermann Hinrichs; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Heidi E. Kir ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Predictive coding theories posit that neural networks learn statistical regularities in the environment for comparison with actual outcomes, signaling a prediction error (PE) when sensory deviation occurs. PE studies in audition have capitalized on low-frequency event-related potentials ...

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Networks of highly branched stigmarian rootlets developed on the first giant trees [Evolution]

14-Jun-2016 | Alexander J. Hetherington; Christopher M. Berry; Liam Dolan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Lycophyte trees, up to 50 m in height, were the tallest in the Carboniferous coal swamp forests. The similarity in their shoot and root morphology led to the hypothesis that their rooting (stigmarian) systems were modified leafy shoot systems, distinct from the roots of all other plants. Each ...

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Free-energy landscape of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

14-Jun-2016 | Jacob C. Miner; Alan A. Chen; Angel E. García, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

We report the characterization of the energy landscape and the folding/unfolding thermodynamics of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop obtained through high-performance molecular dynamics simulations at microsecond timescales. Sampling of the configurational landscape is conducted using temperature ...

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Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization [Ecology]

14-Jun-2016 | Kevin M. Bakker; Micaela Elvira Martinez-Bakker; Barbara Helm; Tyler J. Stevenson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease ...

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Reply to Piper: Aquilonifer’s kites are not mites [Biological Sciences]

14-Jun-2016 | Derek E. G. Briggs; Derek J. Siveter; David J. Siveter; Mark D. Sutton; David Legg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Piper (1) offers the fascinating observation that the attachment of small arthropods by threads to the Silurian arthropod Aquilonifer (2) is similar to that of the nymphs of Uropodina mites to larger arthropods (e.g., beetles) to facilitate their dispersal in patchy habitats (phoresy). Clearly ...

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Antifreeze proteins govern the precipitation of trehalose in a freezing-avoiding insect at low temperature [Chemistry]

14-Jun-2016 | Xin Wen; Sen Wang; John G. Duman; Josh Fnu Arifin; Vonny Juwita; William A. Goddard III; Alejandra Rios; Fan Liu; So ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The remarkable adaptive strategies of insects to extreme environments are linked to the biochemical compounds in their body fluids. Trehalose, a versatile sugar molecule, can accumulate to high levels in freeze-tolerant and freeze-avoiding insects, functioning as a cryoprotectant and a ...

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