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13,931 Newest Publications in proceedings of the national academy of sciences current issue

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Glacial forcing of central Indonesian hydroclimate since 60,000 y B.P. [Environmental Sciences]

08-04-2014 | James M. Russell; Hendrik Vogel; Bronwen L. Konecky; Satria Bijaksana; Yongsong Huang; Martin Melles; Nigel Wattrus; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The Indo-Pacific warm pool houses the largest zone of deep atmospheric convection on Earth and plays a critical role in global climate variations. Despite the region’s importance, changes in Indo-Pacific hydroclimate on orbital timescales remain poorly constrained. Here we present high-resolution ...

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Role of granule-cell transmission in memory trace of cerebellum-dependent optokinetic motor learning [Neuroscience]

08-04-2014 | Norio Wada; Kazuo Funabiki; Shigetada Nakanishi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Adaptation of the optokinetic response (OKR) is an eye movement enhanced by repeated motion of a surrounding visual field and represents a prototype of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Purkinje cells and vestibular nuclei (VN) receive optokinetic and retinal slip signals via the mossy ...

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Two-photon excitation improves multifocal structured illumination microscopy in thick scattering tissue [Cell Biology]

08-04-2014 | Maria Ingaramo; Andrew G. York; Peter Wawrzusin; Oleg Milberg; Amy Hong; Roberto Weigert; Hari Shroff; George H. Pat ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Multifocal structured illumination microscopy (MSIM) provides a twofold resolution enhancement beyond the diffraction limit at sample depths up to 50 µm, but scattered and out-of-focus light in thick samples degrades MSIM performance. Here we implement MSIM with a microlens array to enable ...

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Persistence of skin-resident memory T cells within an epidermal niche [Immunology]

08-04-2014 | Ali Zaid; Laura K. Mackay; Azad Rahimpour; Asolina Braun; Marc Veldhoen; Francis R. Carbone; Jonathan H. Manton; Wil ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Barrier tissues such as the skin contain various populations of immune cells that contribute to protection from infections. These include recently identified tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). In the skin, these memory CD8+ T cells reside in the epidermis after being recruited to this site by ...

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Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality [Ecology]

08-04-2014 | Cameron Wagg; S. Franz Bender; Franco Widmer; Marcel G. A. van der Heijden, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth’s biodiversity is ...

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Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 attenuates disease in a chronic-relapsing rat model for multiple sclerosis [Neuroscience]

08-04-2014 | Anna Ridderstad Wollberg; Anders Ericsson-Dahlstrand; Anders Juréus; Petra Ekerot; Sylvia Simon; Maria Nilsson; Stig ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

One hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is infiltration of leukocytes into the CNS, where chemokines and their receptors play a major mediatory role. CX3CR1 is a chemokine receptor involved in leukocyte adhesion and migration and hence a ...

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Distinct phenotype of a Wilson disease mutation reveals a novel trafficking determinant in the copper transporter ATP7B [Cell Biology]

08-04-2014 | Lelita T. Braiterman; Amrutha Murthy; Samuel Jayakanthan; Lydia Nyasae; Eric Tzeng; Grazyna Gromadzka; Thomas B. Woo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Wilson disease (WD) is a monogenic autosomal-recessive disorder of copper accumulation that leads to liver failure and/or neurological deficits. WD is caused by mutations in ATP7B, a transporter that loads Cu(I) onto newly synthesized cupro-enzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and exports ...

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Shape matters in protein mobility within membranes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

08-04-2014 | François Quemeneur; Jon K. Sigurdsson; Marianne Renner; Paul J. Atzberger; Patricia Bassereau; David Lacoste, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The lateral mobility of proteins within cell membranes is usually thought to be dependent on their size and modulated by local heterogeneities of the membrane. Experiments using single-particle tracking on reconstituted membranes demonstrate that protein diffusion is significantly influenced by ...

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Evolution of a hot genome [Agricultural Sciences]

08-04-2014 | Victor A. Albert; Tien-Hao Chang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The chile pepper has a long and important human history. Chiles, members of the plant genus Capsicum in the Solanaceae family, evolved in the New World and were domesticated there several millennia ago (1). Although it is hard to imagine a Mexican, Szechuan, or Indian dinner without chiles, these ...

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Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots [Ecology]

08-04-2014 | Rebecca L. Lewison; Larry B. Crowder; Bryan P. Wallace; Jeffrey E. Moore; Tara Cox; Ramunas Zydelis; Sara McDonald; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global ...

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