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1,743 Newest Publications of Portland Press

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Metformin and respiratory chain complex I: the last piece of the puzzle?

01-11-2014 | Fontaine E, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug used to treat patients affected by Type2 diabetes. Metformin has also been shown to prevent some forms of cell death; however, evidence suggests that it may have anti-neoplastic properties. All of these effects have been attributed to complex I ...

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NTBI unveiled by chelatable fluorescent beads

01-11-2014 | Sebastiani G; Pantopoulos K, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) emerges in plasma of patients with systemic iron overload, but has also been documented in further pathological conditions. Quantification of NTBI can be useful for diagnosis and management of these disorders. However, currently available detection methods are ...

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Biochemical characterization of P-type copper ATPases

15-10-2014 | Inesi G; Pilankatta R; Tadini-Buoninsegni F, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Copper ATPases, in analogy with other members of the P-ATPase superfamily, contain a catalytic headpiece including an aspartate residue reacting with ATP to form a phosphoenzyme intermediate, and transmembrane helices containing cation-binding sites [TMBS (transmembrane metal-binding sites)] for ...

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Fingerprinting of hydroxyl radical-attacked polysaccharides by N-isopropyl-2-aminoacridone labelling

15-10-2014 | Vreeburg RAM; Airianah OB; Fry SC, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Hydroxyl radicals (•OH) cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides in diverse biological systems. Such reactions can be detrimental (e.g. causing rheumatic and arthritic diseases in mammals) or beneficial (e.g. promoting the softening of ripening fruit, and biomass saccharification). Here we ...

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The architecture of an Okazaki fragment-processing holoenzyme from the archaeon {Less than}i{Greater than}Sulfolobus solfataricus{Less than}/i{Greater than}

09-10-2014 | Cannone G; Xu Y; Beattie T; Bell S; Spagnolo L, Biochemical Journal, 2014

DNA replication on the lagging strand occurs via the synthesis and maturation of Okazaki fragments. In archaea and eukaryotes the enzymatic activities required for this process are supplied by a replicative DNA polymerase, Flap Endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and DNA ligase 1. These factors interact with ...

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Trace analysis of methylated and hydroxymethylated cytosines in DNA by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS: first evidence of DNA methylation in {Less than}i{Greater than}Caenorhabditis elegans{Less than}/i{Greater than}

09-10-2014 | Hu C; Chen J; Hsu Y; Yen C; Chao M, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Since 1986 till now, the popular research model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has been thought to completely lack DNA methylation and seems to lost DNA methylation enzymes from its genomes. Here we report the development of a sensitive and selective assay based on LC-MS/MS to simultaneously ...

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Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2 is a Redox Sensitive Enzyme:Role of Catalytic Cysteine Residues in Regulation of Enzymatic Activity through Changes in Oligomeric State

07-10-2014 | Dotson II P; Karakashian A; Nikolova-Karakashian M, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) is the major sphingomyelinase activated in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and during oxidative stress. It is a membrane-bound 655 amino acid protein containing twenty-two cysteine residues. In this study, we expressed recombinant mouse nSMase-2 ...

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Modification by covalent reaction or oxidation of cysteine residues in the Tandem-SH2 Domains of ZAP-70 and Syk Can Block Phosphopeptide Binding

07-10-2014 | Visperas P; Winger J; Horton T; Shah N; Aum D; Tao A; Barros T; Yan Q; Wilson C; Arkin M; Weiss A; Kuriyan J, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Zeta-chain Associated Protein of 70kDa (ZAP-70) and Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are essential for T-cell and B-cell antigen receptor signaling, respectively. They are recruited, via their tandem-SH2 domains, to doubly-phosphorylated Immunoreceptor ...

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Mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3B2 is localized to lipid droplets via two C-terminal tryptophan residues and lipid modification

06-10-2014 | Kitamura T; Takagi S; Naganuma T; Kihara A, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyze the conversion of toxic aldehydes to non-toxic carboxylic acids. Of the 21 ALDHs in mice, it is the ALDH3 family members (ALDH3A1, ALDH3A2, ALDH3B1, ALDH3B2, and ALDH3B3) that are responsible for the removal of lipid-derived aldehydes. However, ALDH3B2 and ...

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Solution structures and dynamics of ADF/cofilins UNC-60A and UNC-60B from {Less than}i{Greater than}Caenorhabditis elegans{Less than}/i{Greater than}

03-10-2014 | Shukla V; Kabra A; Maheshwari D; Yadav R; Jain A; Tripathi S; Ono S; Kumar D; Arora A, Biochemical Journal, 2014

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two ADF/cofilin isoforms, UNC-60A and UNC-60B, which are expressed from the unc60 gene by alternative splicing.UNC-60A has higher activity to cause net depolymerization, and to inhibit polymerization, than UNC-60B. UNC-60B, on the other hand, shows much ...

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