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1,710 Newest Publications of Portland Press

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The RED light is on! New tools for monitoring Ca2+ dynamics in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

15-11-2014 | Marchi S; Pinton P, Biochemical Journal, 2014

In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Wu et al. describe the characterization of new low-affinity Ca2+ indicators for monitoring Ca2+ levels in both the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and mitochondria. In contrast with other ER Ca2+ sensors, these indicators emit in the red part of the spectrum, ...

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The structure of lipoyl synthase, a remarkable enzyme that performs the last step of an extraordinary biosynthetic pathway

15-11-2014 | Cronan JE, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Lipoic acid is assembled on its cognate proteins (e.g. the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase). An octanoyl moiety is transferred from the octanoyl-ACP of fatty acid synthetase to a specific lysine residue of the cognate protein followed by sulfur insertion at C6 and C8 of the octanoyl chain. ...

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Metformin and respiratory chain complex I: the last piece of the puzzle?

01-11-2014 | Fontaine E, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug used to treat patients affected by Type2 diabetes. Metformin has also been shown to prevent some forms of cell death; however, evidence suggests that it may have anti-neoplastic properties. All of these effects have been attributed to complex I ...

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NTBI unveiled by chelatable fluorescent beads

01-11-2014 | Sebastiani G; Pantopoulos K, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) emerges in plasma of patients with systemic iron overload, but has also been documented in further pathological conditions. Quantification of NTBI can be useful for diagnosis and management of these disorders. However, currently available detection methods are ...

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Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC1) Modulates Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Immune Suppression

23-10-2014 | Almahariq M; Mei F; Wang H; Cao A; Yao S; Soong L; Sun J; Cong Y; Chen J; Cheng X, Biochemical Journal, 2014

The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway plays an essential role in immune functions. In this study we examined the role of the cAMP/EPAC1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) axis in regulatory T-cell (Treg)-mediated immune suppression using genetic and pharmacologic ...

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A cholesterol consensus motif is required for efficient intracellular transport and raft association of a group 2 HA of influenza virus

21-10-2014 | De Vries M; Herrmann A; Veit M, Biochemical Journal, 2014

The HA (haemagglutinin) of influenza viruses must be recruited to membrane rafts to perform its function in membrane fusion and virus budding. We previ-ously showed with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) that deletion of the two rafttargeting features of HA, S-acylation at the cytoplasmic ...

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Structural Determinants of Host Specificity of Complement Factor H Recruitment by {Less than}i{Greater than}Streptococcus pneumoniae{Less than}/i{Greater than}

21-10-2014 | Achila D; Liu A; Banerjee R; Li Y; Martinez-Hackert E; Zhang J; Yan H, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Many human pathogens have strict host specificity, which affects not only their epidemiology but also development of animal models and vaccines. Complement factor H (FH) is recruited to pneumococcal cell surface in a human-specific manner via the N-terminal domain of the pneumococcal protein ...

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Identification of peptides in human Hsp20 and Hsp27 that possess molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities

21-10-2014 | Nahomi R; DiMauro M; Wang B; Nagaraj R, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Previous studies have identified peptides in the ‘crystallin-domain’ of the small heat shock protein α-crystallin with chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. We found that peptides in Hsp20 (71GHFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (93DRWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to α-crystallin ...

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Cytoglobin ligand binding regulated by changing haem-coordination in response to intramolecular disulfide bond formation and lipid interaction

20-10-2014 | Beckerson P; Wilson M; Svistunenko D; Reeder B, Biochemical Journal, 2014

Cytoglobin is a hexacoordinate haem protein from the globin superfamily with a physiological function that is unclear. We have previously reported that the haem coordination is changed in the presence of lipids, potentially transforming the redox properties of the protein and hence the function ...

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p58(IPK) is an Inhibitor of the eIF2{alpha} Kinase GCN2 and its Localisation and Expression Underpin Protein Synthesis and ER Processing Capacity

20-10-2014 | Roobol A; Roobol J; Bastide A; Knight J; Willis A; Smales C, Biochemical Journal, 2014

One of the key cellular responses to stress is the attenuation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis via the phosphorylation of eIF2α. This is mediated by four eIF2α kinases and it has been suggested that each kinase is specific to the cellular stress imposed. Herein we show that both PERK ...

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