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28,357 Newest Publications of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Reply to Brenker et al.: The plant triterpenoid pristimerin inhibits calcium influx into human spermatozoa via CatSper [Biological Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Nadja Mannowetz; Nadine Mundt; Polina V. Lishko, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

In the letter by Brenker et al. (1), the authors assessed actions of various steroids toward the human calcium channel of sperm (CatSper). The experiments, carried out with calcium imaging, are minimally supplemented by electrophysiology. The authors show that all tested steroids activate CatSper ...

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Noncanonical agonist PPAR{gamma} ligands modulate the response to DNA damage and sensitize cancer cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy [Medical Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Melin J. Khandekar; Alexander S. Banks; Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski; James P. White; Jang Hyun Choi; Lawrence Kazak; Jam ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The peroxisome-proliferator receptor-γ (PPARγ) is expressed in multiple cancer types. Recently, our group has shown that PPARγ is phosphorylated on serine 273 (S273), which selectively modulates the transcriptional program controlled by this protein. PPARγ ligands, including thiazolidinediones ...

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When linearity prevails over hierarchy in syntax [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Jana Willer Gold; Boban Arsenijević; Mia Batinić; Michael Becker; Nermina Čordalija; Marijana Kresić; Nedžad Leko; F ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Hierarchical structure has been cherished as a grammatical universal. We use experimental methods to show where linear order is also a relevant syntactic relation. An identical methodology and design were used across six research sites on South Slavic languages. Experimental results show that in ...

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Silk-based multilayered angle-ply annulus fibrosus construct to recapitulate form and function of the intervertebral disc [Medical Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Bibhas K. Bhunia; David L. Kaplan; Biman B. Mandal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Recapitulation of the form and function of complex tissue organization using appropriate biomaterials impacts success in tissue engineering endeavors. The annulus fibrosus (AF) represents a complex, multilamellar, hierarchical structure consisting of collagen, proteoglycans, and elastic fibers. ...

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Novel concept of the smart NIR-light-controlled drug release of black phosphorus nanostructure for cancer therapy [Applied Biological Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Meng Qiu; Dou Wang; Weiyuan Liang; Liping Liu; Yin Zhang; Xing Chen; David Kipkemoi Sang; Chenyang Xing; Zhongjun Li ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

A biodegradable drug delivery system (DDS) is one the most promising therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Here, we propose a unique concept of light activation of black phosphorus (BP) at hydrogel nanostructures for cancer therapy. A photosensitizer converts light into heat that softens and ...

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Motion parallax in electric sensing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16-Jan-2018 | Federico Pedraja; Volker Hofmann; Kathleen M. Lucas; Colleen Young; Jacob Engelmann; John E. Lewis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

A crucial step in forming spatial representations of the environment involves the estimation of relative distance. Active sampling through specific movements is considered essential for optimizing the sensory flow that enables the extraction of distance cues. However, in electric sensing, direct ...

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Cyclic AMP-dependent plasticity underlies rapid changes in odor coding associated with reward learning [Genetics]

16-Jan-2018 | Thierry Louis; Aaron Stahl; Tamara Boto; Seth M. Tomchik, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, ...

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Gene regulation and suppression of type I interferon signaling by STAT3 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma [Medical Sciences]

16-Jan-2018 | Li Lu; Fen Zhu; Meili Zhang; Yangguang Li; Amanda C. Drennan; Shuichi Kimpara; Ian Rumball; Christopher Selzer; Hunt ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and regulates gene expression to promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and migration. In diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), activation of STAT3 and its kinase JAK1 is caused by autocrine production of IL-6 and IL-10 in the ...

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KLU suppresses megasporocyte cell fate through SWR1-mediated activation of WRKY28 expression in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

16-Jan-2018 | Lihua Zhao; Hanyang Cai; Zhenxia Su; Lulu Wang; Xinyu Huang; Man Zhang; Piaojuan Chen; Xiaozhuan Dai; Heming Zhao; R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Germ-line specification is essential for sexual reproduction. In the ovules of most flowering plants, only a single hypodermal cell enlarges and differentiates into a megaspore mother cell (MMC), the founder cell of the female germ-line lineage. The molecular mechanisms restricting MMC ...

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Structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase cleaving RNA in an RNA/DNA hybrid [Biochemistry]

16-Jan-2018 | Lan Tian; Min-Sung Kim; Hongzhi Li; Jimin Wang; Wei Yang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) contains both DNA polymerase and RNase H activities to convert the viral genomic RNA to dsDNA in infected host cells. Here we report the 2.65-Å resolution structure of HIV-1 RT engaging in cleaving RNA in an RNA/DNA hybrid. A preferred substrate sequence is ...

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