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Multiphase Chemistry of Glyoxal: Revised Kinetics of the Alkyl Radical Reaction with Molecular Oxygen and the Reaction of Glyoxal with OH, NO3, and SO4– in Aqueous Solution

19-Dec-2014 | T. Schaefer; D. van Pinxteren; H. Herrmann, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

The rate constant for the reaction of the hydrated glyoxyl radical (CH(OH)2-C(OH)2· with O2 has been determined as k298K = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 109 L mol–1 s–1 at pH 4.8. This experimental value is considerably higher than a widely used estimated value of about k = 1 × 106 L mol–1 s–1. As the aqueous ...

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Pressure-Induced Metathesis Reaction To Sequester Cs

17-Dec-2014 | Junhyuck Im; Donghoon Seoung; Seung Yeop Lee; Douglas A. Blom; Thomas Vogt; Chi-Chang Kao; Yongjae Lee, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

We report here a pressure-driven metathesis reaction where Ag-exchanged natrolite (Ag16Al16Si24O80·16H2O, Ag-NAT) is pressurized in an aqueous CsI solution, resulting in the exchange of Ag+ by Cs+ in the natrolite framework forming Cs16Al16Si24O80·16H2O (Cs-NAT-I) and, above 0.5 GPa, its ...

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Sustainability, Vol. 6, Pages 9231-9243: Empirical Evaluation of the Effect of Heat Gain from Fiber Optic Daylighting System on Tropical Building Interiors

12-Dec-2014 | Munaaim, Muhammad Arkam C.; Al-Obaidi, Karam M.; Ismail, Mohd Rodzi; Rahman, Abdul Malek Abdul, Sustainability, 2014

A fiber optic daylighting system is an evolving technology for transporting illumination from sunlight into building interiors. This system is a solution developed by daylighting designers to reduce operational costs and enhance comfort. As an innovative technology, fiber optic daylighting ...

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Properties Governing the Transport of Trace Organic Contaminants through Ion-Exchange Membranes

12-Dec-2014 | Marjolein Vanoppen; Annelise F.A.M. Bakelants; Dorien Gaublomme; Klaas V.K.M. Schoutteten; Julie Vanden Bussche; Lyn ..., Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

Ion exchange membranes could provide a solution to the selective separation of organic and inorganic components in industrial wastewater. The phenomena governing the transport of organics through the IEM however, are not yet fully understood. Therefore, the transport of trace organic contaminants ...

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Fe(III) Hydroxide Nucleation and Growth on Quartz in the Presence of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III): Metal Hydrolysis and Adsorption

11-Dec-2014 | Chong Dai; Yandi Hu, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

Fe(III) hydroxide nanoparticles are an essential carrier for aqueous heavy metals. Particularly, iron hydroxide precipitation on mineral surfaces can immobilize aqueous heavy metals. Here, we used grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) to quantify nucleation and growth of iron ...

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Sustainability, Vol. 6, Pages 9139-9158: Developing a Cell-Based Spatial Optimization Model for Land-Use Patterns Planning

09-Dec-2014 | Huang, Chun-Wei ; Lin, Yu-Pin ; Ding, Tzung-Su ; Anthony, Johnathen, Sustainability, 2014

This study developed a cell-based spatial optimization model compatible with the ArcGIS platform, termed Dynamically Dimensioned Search Landscape Optimization Planning model (DDSLOP), for landscape planning. The development of the proposed model was based on the Dynamically Dimensioned Search ...

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Investigation of Soil Legacy Phosphorus Transformation in Long-Term Agricultural Fields Using Sequential Fractionation, P K-edge XANES and Solution P NMR Spectroscopy

08-Dec-2014 | Jin Liu; Yongfeng Hu; Jianjun Yang; Dalel Abdi; Barbara J. Cade-Menun, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

Understanding legacy phosphorus (P) build-up and draw-down from long-term fertilization is essential for effective P management. Using replicated plots from Saskatchewan, Canada, with P fertilization from 1967 to 1995 followed by either P fertilization or P cessation (1995–2010), soil P was ...

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Sustainability, Vol. 6, Pages 8775-8795: A Simplified Method for Evaluating Building Sustainability in the Early Design Phase for Architects

02-Dec-2014 | Markelj, Jernej ; Kitek Kuzman, Manja ; Grošelj, Petra ; Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Martina, Sustainability, 2014

With society turning increasingly to sustainable development, sharper demands are being made concerning energy efficiency and other properties that mean reductions in the negative effects of the building on the environment and people. This means that architects must have a suitably adapted ...

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Reduction of Diffusive Contaminant Emissions from a Dissolved Source in a Lower Permeability Layer by Sodium Persulfate Treatment

26-Nov-2014 | Bridget A. Cavanagh; Paul C. Johnson; Eric J. Daniels, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

Residual contamination contained in lower permeability zones is difficult to remediate and can, through diffusive emissions to adjacent higher permeability zones, result in long-term impacts to groundwater. This work investigated the effectiveness of oxidant delivery for reducing diffusive ...

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Impacts of Diffusive Transport on Carbonate Mineral Formation from Magnesium Silicate-CO2-Water Reactions

25-Nov-2014 | Daniel E. Giammar; Fei Wang; Bin Guo; J. Andrew Surface; Catherine A. Peters; Mark S. Conradi; Sophia E. Hayes, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014

Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium ...

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