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“A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Down”: Bitter Masking by Sucrose Among Children and Adults

01-Jan-2015 | Julie A. Mennella; Danielle R. Reed; Phoebe S. Mathew; Kristi M. Roberts; Corrine J. Mansfield, Chemical Senses, 2015

Sweeteners are often added to liquid formulations of drugs but whether they merely make them better tasting or actually reduce the perception of bitterness remains unknown. In a group of children and adults, we determined whether adding sucrose to urea, caffeine, denatonium benzoate, ...

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Auto-oxidation Products of Epigallocatechin Gallate Activate TRPA1 and TRPV1 in Sensory Neurons

01-Jan-2015 | Mako Kurogi; Yasushi Kawai; Katsuhiro Nagatomo; Michihiro Tateyama; Yoshihiro Kubo; Osamu Saitoh, Chemical Senses, 2015

The sensation of astringency is elicited by catechins and their polymers in wine and tea. It has been considered that catechins in green tea are unstable and auto-oxidized to induce more astringent taste. Here, we examined how mammalian transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1, which are ...

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Mechanistic studies on formation of the dinitrosyl iron complex of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of SoxR protein

01-Sep-2014 | Mayu Fujikawa; Kazuo Kobayashi; Takahiro Kozawa, Journal of Biochemistry, 2014

The transcriptional activation of SoxR in Escherichia coli occurs through direct modification of the [2Fe-2S] by nitric oxide (NO) to form a dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC). Here, we investigated the reactions of NO with [2Fe-2S] clusters of SoxR; the results were compared with those obtained for ...

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Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Assessing PROP Taste Perception

01-Jul-2013 | Gregory Smutzer; Hetvi Desai; Susan E. Coldwell; James W. Griffith, Chemical Senses, 2013

A novel delivery method is described that incorporates taste stimuli into edible strips for determining n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status. Edible strips that contained 400 or 600nanomoles of PROP were prepared for psychophysical studies. Using these strips, we measured taste intensity, ...

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Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra of two FAD molecules in electron-transferring flavoprotein from Megasphaera elsdenii

01-Jul-2013 | Kyosuke Sato; Yasuzo Nishina; Kiyoshi Shiga, Journal of Biochemistry, 2013

Electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) from Megasphaera elsdenii contains two FAD molecules, FAD-1 and FAD-2. FAD-2 shows an unusual absorption spectrum with a 400-nm peak. In contrast, ETFs from other sources such as pig contain one FAD and one AMP with the FAD showing a typical flavin ...

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Light and electron microscope structural study of the zona radiata in the oocyte of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

01-Jun-2013 | E. F. Kaviani; N. Shabanipour; S. B. Mirnategh, Journal of Electron Microscopy, 2013

Teleosts account for more than half of the vertebrate species. A key feature of the evolutionary success of teleosts is their reproductive systems, which are efficient and functional under all aquatic environmental conditions. The zona radiata (ZR) is a non- cellular envelope over oolemma of ...

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Immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural characteristics of nerve endings in the oral mucosa of rat

01-Apr-2013 | Ii-sei Watanabe; Fernando José Dias; João Paulo Mardegan Issa; Carlos Alexandre dos Santos Haemmerle; Diego Pulzatto ..., Journal of Electron Microscopy, 2013

The sensory nerve endings of the rat tongue, cheek and palate were studied using immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The specimens were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution and embedded in Spurr resin. Substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- ...

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The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Paroxetine Decreases Breakpoint of Rats Engaging in a Progressive Ratio Licking Task for Sucrose and Quinine Solutions

01-Mar-2013 | Clare M. Mathes; Jillian R. Gregson; Alan C. Spector, Chemical Senses, 2013

Increased serotonergic activity has been shown to reduce motivation to ingest, which may involve, in part, gustatory processes. Here, we examined the effect of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on appetitive responding for a preferred and an avoided taste solution using a ...

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Evaluation of the Masking of Dimethyl Sulfide Odors by Citronellal, Limonene and Citral through the Use of Trained Odor Sensor Mice

01-Jan-2013 | Kazumi Osada; Masaaki Hanawa; Kenji Tsunoda; Hiroshi Izumi, Chemical Senses, 2013

AbstractPrevious studies indicate that the most common result of mixing two odors is the decreased olfactory perception of one or both components in the mixture. An excellent example of this phenomenon is provided by the masking of an unpleasant odor by a pleasant odor. This study hypothesized ...

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Maintenance of the secondary structure of horse cytochrome c during the conversion process of monomers to oligomers by addition of ethanol

01-Dec-2012 | Shun Hirota; Mariko Ueda; Yugo Hayashi; Satoshi Nagao; Hironari Kamikubo; Mikio Kataoka, Journal of Biochemistry, 2012

We have previously shown that polymerization of cytochrome c (cyt c) occurs by successively domain swapping its C-terminal α-helix in the presence of ethanol. However, the factors that govern the conversion process of monomers to domain-swapped oligomers remain unknown. We found that oligomeric ...

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