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171 Newest Publications about the topic solution

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Multiple patterns of polymer gels in microspheres due to the interplay among phase separation, wetting, and gelation [Applied Physical Sciences]

11-11-2014 | Miho Yanagisawa; Shinpei Nigorikawa; Takahiro Sakaue; Kei Fujiwara; Masayuki Tokita, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

We report the spontaneous patterning of polymer microgels by confining a polymer blend within microspheres. A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and gelatin solution was confined inside water-in-oil (W/O) microdroplets coated with a layer of zwitterionic lipids: dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and ...

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Migrant solution to the anammox mystery [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

04-11-2014 | Cecelia C. S. Hannides, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Every night a massive migration takes place in ocean waters. Zooplankton and micronekton, a diverse group of organisms <1 mm to 10 cm in size, swim up from midwater depths (200–700 m) to the surface ocean to feed and return down to resting depths before daybreak. The importance of this...

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Solution structures of Mengovirus Leader protein, its phosphorylated derivatives, and in complex with nuclear transport regulatory protein, RanGTPase [Microbiology]

04-11-2014 | Valjean R. Bacot-Davis; Jessica J. Ciomperlik; Holly A. Basta; Claudia C. Cornilescu; Ann C. Palmenberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cardiovirus Leader (L) proteins induce potent antihost inhibition of active cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by triggering aberrant hyperphosphorylation of nuclear pore proteins (Nup). To achieve this, L binds protein RanGTPase (Ran), a key trafficking regulator, and diverts it into ...

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Waking sleeping algal cells [Plant Biology]

04-11-2014 | Xiaobo Li; James G. Umen; Martin C. Jonikas, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Our growing energy demands and decreasing reserves of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy solutions. Biodiesel derived from plant triacylglycerol (TAG) storage lipids can be used in diesel engines directly and is thus a drop-in solution to offset the increasing demand for ...

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Importance of the DNA "bond" in programmable nanoparticle crystallization [Chemistry]

21-10-2014 | Robert J. Macfarlane; Ryan V. Thaner; Keith A. Brown; Jian Zhang; Byeongdu Lee; SonBinh T. Nguyen; Chad A. Mirkin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

If a solution of DNA-coated nanoparticles is allowed to crystallize, the thermodynamic structure can be predicted by a set of structural design rules analogous to Pauling’s rules for ionic crystallization. The details of the crystallization process, however, have proved more difficult to ...

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Inner Workings: Roboclam [Inner Workings]

21-10-2014 | Calla Cofield, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Digging in the sand might seem like child's play, but doing it efficiently has stumped many adult engineers. As is often the case, nature has revealed a superior solution: this time in the Atlantic razor clam, which can burrow into and out of sandy ocean bottoms more efficiently than man-made,...

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A cellular solution to an information-processing problem [Applied Physical Sciences]

26-08-2014 | Garud Iyengar; Madan Rao, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Signaling receptors on the cell surface are mobile and have evolved to efficiently sense and process mechanical or chemical information. We pose the problem of identifying the optimal strategy for placing a collection of distributed and mobile sensors to faithfully estimate a signal that varies ...

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Structure of {beta}-galactosidase at 3.2-A resolution obtained by cryo-electron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

12-08-2014 | Alberto Bartesaghi; Doreen Matthies; Soojay Banerjee; Alan Merk; Sriram Subramaniam, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

We report the solution structure of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase (∼465 kDa), solved at ∼3.2-Å resolution by using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Densities for most side chains, including those of residues in the active site, and a catalytic Mg2+ ion can be discerned in ...

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The magnetoelectrochemical switch [Applied Physical Sciences]

22-07-2014 | Petru Lunca Popa; Neil T. Kemp; Hicham Majjad; Guillaume Dalmas; Vina Faramarzi; Christian Andreas; Riccardo Hertel; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In the field of spintronics, the archetype solid-state two-terminal device is the spin valve, where the resistance is controlled by the magnetization configuration. We show here how this concept of spin-dependent switch can be extended to magnetic electrodes in solution, by magnetic control of ...

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Synthesizing cognition in neuromorphic electronic systems [Engineering]

10-09-2013 | Emre Neftci; Jonathan Binas; Ueli Rutishauser; Elisabetta Chicca; Giacomo Indiveri; Rodney J. Douglas, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The quest to implement intelligent processing in electronic neuromorphic systems lacks methods for achieving reliable behavioral dynamics on substrates of inherently imprecise and noisy neurons. Here we report a solution to this problem that involves first mapping an unreliable hardware layer of ...

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